1.6: The Second Reich by 1914

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What is John Rohl's verdict?
The autocratic Kaiser's militarism and conservatism sidelined the Reichstag and weakened democratic forces
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What was Wehler's verdict?
The system failed against the social and political changes brought about by economic modernisation, and that conservative forces like the army dominated over the Reichstag
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What was Clark's verdict?
The Kaiser was to erratic for personal rule, positive outlook on democracy in Germany
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What was Eley and Blackbourn's verdict?
Emphasis on politics from below, emphasis on scale and range of political participation
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Name (5) points that prove Germany was an autocracy
The Kaiser's powers to dissolve Reichstag and appoint/dismiss Chancellor, the Kaiser's shaping of government, von Bulow's forced resignation, Bethmann's vote of no confidence, the army's unaccountability in Zabern, popularity of Weltpolitik in public
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Name (4) points that prove Germany was dominated by a conservative elite
Conservative agendas of colonial, naval and militaristic expansion reflected in gov't policy, conservative pressure groups successful, Bundesrat meant gov't dominated by conservatives, conservative Prussians dominated army, gov't, judiciary
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Name (7) points that prove there was democracy and liberalism in Germany
Men from all classes could vote, Reichstag able to reject legislation, the Reichstag's assertiveness and criticism, von Bulow's social reforms, the press in Daily Telegraph Affair, political participation high, plurality of interests in the state
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Name (3) examples of when the Kaiser shaped the government
1896-7, 1905-6, Reichstag dissolved in 1906
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Name (1) example of when the army was only accountable to the Kaiser
Army not affected by Reichstag's criticism following the Zabern Affair 1913
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Name (1) example of the conservative elite's agenda in government policy
Naval Bill 1906
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Name (1) example of the influence of conservative pressure groups
the Agrarian League and the Central Association of German Industrialists successfully lobbied for increased agricultural tariffs in 1902
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Name (1) example of when the Reichstag rejected legislation
1906 colonial policy
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Name (3) examples of the Reichstag's assertiveness
1906 budget, criticism of Kaiser in Daily Telegraph Affair 1908, the vote of no confidence towards Bethmann in 1913
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Name (3) examples of how political participation was high
Trade union membership, influential pressure groups, female participation despite no voting power
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Card 2

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What was Wehler's verdict?

Back

The system failed against the social and political changes brought about by economic modernisation, and that conservative forces like the army dominated over the Reichstag

Card 3

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What was Clark's verdict?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What was Eley and Blackbourn's verdict?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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Name (5) points that prove Germany was an autocracy

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