1.6 Isolationism, 1919-32

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What does isolationism described as?
America's longstanding reluctance to become involved in European alliances and wars
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What did WW1 persuade the US to do in terms of foreign policy?
The outbreak and experience of WW1 did much to persuade the Americans that they were right to reject involvement in Europe, after the War support for isolationism was strong
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How did the US attempt isolationism?
In the 1920 election Harding talked of a 'return to normalcy', the US should focus on its own domestic issues especially the economy, the rejection of the League of nations was part of this desire to stay out of Europe
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How was the US mainly linked to Europe?
The issue of war debt, at the end of the war the US insisted that these loans be repaid even though the economies of these countries were unable to do so
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What was the war debt triangle?
The use gave loans to Germany, who would pay reparations to France and Britain, who repay loans to the US
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What happened when Germany couldn't repay reparation installments 1923?
A combined French and Belgian forces invaded the Ruhr, the Germany economy was on the verge of collapse and the danger of war between France and Germany was very real
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What did the Dawes Plan do and when was it introduced?
The US would make loans to Germany to invest and rebuild her economy so they could pay the reparations and was introduced in 1924
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What was the Young Plan and when was it introduced?
It cut Germany's reparations by a third and extended the repayment period to 59 years, it was introduced in 1929
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Why did the US support disarmament?
Because of peace, it would allow the government to keep federal spending low and less money would be spent on arms so more countries could spend on trade
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What did the Washington Naval Treaty do and when was it introduced?
It agreed how big the navies of each nation could be, it was introduced in 1922
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Why did the Geneva conference in 1927 fail?
Because the French wanted a guarantee that the other nations would help them if they were attacked but Britain and France declined
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What did the Kellogg Briand pact do and when was it introduced?
Introduced in 1928, signed between French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand and US Secretary of State Frank Kellog, to renounce the use of war as a policy
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How many people and nations signed the Kellogg Briand Pact?
62 nations and 2 million people
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What did Coolidge do to encourage pro-Americanism in Latin America?
Withdrew soldiers from Cuba and the Dominican Republic, paid Colombia $25 million compensation for the Panamanian revolution
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What happened when Coolidge removed troops from Nicaragua in 1925?
A civil war broke out so Coolidge sent marines back, the Americans arranged for free elections in 1928, and withdrew all their troops by 1933 but ended leaving Nicaragua with an dictatorship until the 1970s
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What was the Clark Memorandum and when was it introduced?
It was introduced in 1930, seemed to be suggesting much less interference by the United States in Latin America
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Why did the US have a vital interest in Latin America?
US businesses and investments worth $3.52 billion in 1929 still gave them a very large say in many countries
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How did the US' attitude towards isolationism differ between the East and Europe?
Primary isolationism was aimed at Europe, but attitudes towards the Far East were much more active through trade links with China and the worry about Japanese expansion in the Pacific
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What did the Four Power Agreement do and when was it introduced?
It was introduced in 1921 and it was to consult on matters of interest in the Pacific
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What did the Nine Power Agreement do and when was it introduced?
It was introduced in 1921, it was to respect the territorial integrity of China
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When did the Nine Power Agreement break and why?
It was broken in 1932, when Japan invaded the Chinese province of Manchuria, but the West was more concerned with the growing economic depression than with Japanese expansion
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Card 2

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What did WW1 persuade the US to do in terms of foreign policy?

Back

The outbreak and experience of WW1 did much to persuade the Americans that they were right to reject involvement in Europe, after the War support for isolationism was strong

Card 3

Front

How did the US attempt isolationism?

Back

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Card 4

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How was the US mainly linked to Europe?

Back

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Card 5

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What was the war debt triangle?

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