1.4 Managing People

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Maslow's Hierachy of Needs
Basic Needs- Safety Needs- Social Needs- Self-esteem- Self-Actualisation
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McGregor- X and Y Theory
Theory X- based on individuals who do not like work and therefore need strict management. Theory Y- People who like work and need less strict management and more space for creativity.
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Herzberg- Two Factor Theory
Motivators- how motivating the job is itself. Hygiene Factors- factors that surround the job including safe working conditions.
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Taylor- Scientific Management
Staff are only motivated by threats and pay.
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Mayo
Workers are motivated by communication, manager involvement and teamwork.
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McClelland
There are Three Dominant Motivators- Achievement, Affiliation and Power.
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Vroom- Expectancy Theory
This based on Valence (confidence), Expectancy (outcome expected) and Instrumentality (qualifications and skills).
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Full Time
These contracts are generally offered for permanent positions and are roughly 35-40 hours per week.
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Zero Hours
Where the employer is not obliged to provide any minimum working hours and the worker is not obliged to accept any work offered.
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Flexitime
A flexible work schedule that allows workers to alter workday start and finish times.
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Split Shift
Where a person's work day is split into two parts or more.
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Internal Recruitment
Recruitment from within the business.
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External Recruitment
When someone is appointed from outside the business.
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Flexible Workforce
A workforce that grows in number to meet needs at any given time.
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Multiskilling
The training of an employee in multiple skill-sets.
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Outsourcing
Obtaining goods or services from an outside supplier.
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Dismissal
The act of ordering or allowing someone to leave.
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Redundancy
The state of being no longer needed or useful to the business.
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Collective Bargaining
Negotiation of wages and other conditions of employment by an organised body of employees, usually trade unions.
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Renumeration
Mostly pay for working.
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Types of Financial Motivation
Wages, salaries, piece-rate pay, fringe benefits (perks), performance related pay (PRP), profit sharing, share ownership, commission, bonus.
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Non-Financial Motivation
Job Enrichment, Job Enlargement, Job Rotation, Teamwork, Empowerment, Praise.
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Job Description
States the title of the job and the tasks and responsibilites associated with the role.
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Person Specification
Provides details of the skills, qualifications, and experience the job requires.
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Stages in the Recruitment Process
Identify a vacancy- Write job description and person specification- Advertise the vacancy- Review the applicants- Interview- Shortlist again- Select and appoint someone- Send feedback to unsuccessful candidates- Hire and give induction training.
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Labour Turnover
The number of employees who leave a workplace within a given period of time (usually a year).
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Absenteeism
The number of staff absent from work for a period of time without a legit reason.
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Absenteeism Formula
Days Absent/ Total Potential Working Days x100
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Induction Training
Training for people starting a job.
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On The Job Training
Training given in the workplace by the employer.
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Off The Job Training
Training which takes place outside the business by an external training provider.
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Centralisation
A type of business where major decisions are made at the core of the organisation and then passed down the chain of command.
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Decentralisation
A type of business where decision making is pushed down the chain of command and away from the core.
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Hierachy
The order of responsibility in an organisation from the lowest to the highest.
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Tall Structures
Long chain of command and narrow span of control.
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Flat Structures
Short chain of command and wide span of control.
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Matrix Structures
Shows two specific projects with people in charge of each department.
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Chain of Command
The way authority is organised- when orders and information are passed down levels of responsibility.
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Leadership
Setting a direction or vision for the business to follow.
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Management
Controlling or directing people/resources according to values that have already been established.
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Trait Theories
A set of characteristics that determine a good leader, e.g. charisma.
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Behavioural Theories
Implies that leaders can be trained, focus on the way of doing things.
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Autocratic Leadership
When a leader makes all the decisions with little or no input from other employees.
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Paternalistic Leadership
Similar to autocratic, this is when a leader makes all the decisions but takes into account thoughts of employees, as well as showing concern for their well-being.
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Laissez-Faire Leadership
Providing all the resources necessary to employees and allowing them to get on with the work without much input from the leader.
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Democratic Leadership
When emplyees have a lot more input towards business decisions and usually collectively decide the best option for the organisation.
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Factors Affecting Leadership Styles
Tradition of the business, Group personality and size, Type of labour force, Leader's personality, The task itself.
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Quality Circles
Small groups of workers in the same area of production who meet regularly to study and solve production problems.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Theory X- based on individuals who do not like work and therefore need strict management. Theory Y- People who like work and need less strict management and more space for creativity.

Back

McGregor- X and Y Theory

Card 3

Front

Motivators- how motivating the job is itself. Hygiene Factors- factors that surround the job including safe working conditions.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Staff are only motivated by threats and pay.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Workers are motivated by communication, manager involvement and teamwork.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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