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  • Created by: ambh0yle
  • Created on: 17-02-14 13:12
what does the nucleus of a cell contain?
chromosomes
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what do chromosomes do?
carry a large number of genes that control the characteristics of the body.
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What are different forms of genes called?
alleles
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what are chromosomes usually found in?
pairs
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what happens in mitosis?
body cells divide to produce additional cells during growth or to produce replacement cells.
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state two things that happen when body cells divide by mitosis:
copies of the genetic material are made, the cell then divides once to form 2 genetically identical body cells.
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in reproductive organs when cells divide what do they form?
gametes
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what is this process called?
meiosis.
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state two things that happen when a cell divides to form gametes:
copies of genetic information are made, the cell then divides twice to form four gametes, each with a single set of chromosomes.
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when gametes join at fertilisation what do they form?
a single body cell with new pairs of chromosomes.
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the single body cell then repeatedly divides by what?
mitosis, to form many cells.
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what happens as the organism develops?
the cells differentiate to form different kinds of cells.
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when do animal cells differentiate?
early stages.
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when do plant cells differentiate?
they retain the ability to differentiate throughout life
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in mature animals what happens to cell division?
it is mainly restricted to repair and replacement.
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what are stem cells?
cells from human embryos and adult bone marrow.
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what can stem cells do?
be made to differentiate into many different types of human cells.
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what condition can stem cells help?
paralysis.
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what is a tissue?
a group of cells with similar structure and function.
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what are organs made from?
tissues
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up to how many tissues can an organ be made from?
several
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what are organ systems?
a group of organs that perform a particular function.
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name 3 examples of animal tissue
muscular tissue, glandular tissue and epithelial tissue
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what does muscular tissue do?
contracts to bring about movement
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what does glandular tissue do?
produces substances such as enzymes and hormones
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what does epithelial tissue do?
covers some parts of the body.
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what type of tissue does the stomach contain?
muscular tissue, glandular tissue and epithelial tissue.
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why does the stomach need muscular tissue?
to allow contents to move through the digestive system.
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why does the stomach need glandular tissue?
to produce digestive juices.
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why does the stomach need epithelial tissue?
to cover the inside and outside of the stomach.
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give an example of an animal organ system?
the digestive system.
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what does the digestive system include?
glands (such as pancreas and salivary glands which produce digestive juices), stomach + small intestine (where digestion occurs), liver (produces bile), small intestine (where the absorption of soluble food occurs), large intestine.
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give 4 examples of plant tissue:
epidermal tissue, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, xylem and pholem.
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what does the epidermal tissue do in a plant?
covers the plant
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what does the palisade mesophyll do?
carries out photosynthesis
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what does the spongy mesophyll do?
has air spaces to facilitate diffusion of gases
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what do xylem and phloem do?
transport substances around the plant.
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what are the 3 plant organs?
stems, roots and leaves
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Card 2

Front

what do chromosomes do?

Back

carry a large number of genes that control the characteristics of the body.

Card 3

Front

What are different forms of genes called?

Back

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Card 4

Front

what are chromosomes usually found in?

Back

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Card 5

Front

what happens in mitosis?

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