1.3.1 PERIODICITY

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How are elements arranged in the modern periodic table?
by increasing atomic (proton number)
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What is periodicity?
trends or recurring variations in element properties with increasing atomic number
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What is a group?
vertical column // elements in a group have similar chemical properties and their atoms have the same number of outer shell electrons
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What is a period?
horizontal row // elements show repeating trends in physical and chemical properties // have same number of shells
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How do ionisation energies change across a period?
ionisation energy increases // nuclear charge increases as more protons ATOMIC RADII DECREASE// all extra electrons at roughly the same energy level// generally little shielding
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How do ionisation energies change across a period?
decreases// larger radius so more shielding, greater nuclear charge
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Describe the ionisation energies of periods 2 and 3
electrons being added into the same shell // atomic radii decrease, greater nuclear attraction //
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Describe the melting and boiling points of elements in period 3
increases from 1-4, decreases from 4-8// metallic bonding from Na to Al// Si macromolecular bonding as increases// Cl onwards simple molecular VdW forces
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Describe the melting and boiling points of elements in period 2
increases Li, Be metallic bonding to macromolecular B,C// N O gases to molecular weaker VdW
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Card 2

Front

What is periodicity?

Back

trends or recurring variations in element properties with increasing atomic number

Card 3

Front

What is a group?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a period?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do ionisation energies change across a period?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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