12 Cranial Nerves

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What is the first cranial nerve and what is its function?
Olfactory nerve - transmits nerve impulses about odours to the central nervous system
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Describe the passage of the nerve impulse from the first cranial nerve
From the olfactory mucosa the nerve travels up through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to reach the surface of the brain. The nerve enters the olfacotry bulb and synapses there to be taken over the brain via the olfactory tract.
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What is the second cranial nerve and its function?
Optic nerve - transmits visual impulses from the retina to the brain
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What is the third cranial nerve and its function?
Oculomotor nerve - innervates four of the extrinsic muscles that move the eye and eyelid. It also contains nerve fibres that innervate the muscle that enable pupillary constriction and accommodation.
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What is the fourth cranial nerve and its function?
Trochlear nerve - Innervates the superior oblique muscle which abducts, depresses and internally rotates the eye.
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What is the fifth cranial nerve and its function?
Trigeminal nerve - responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing.
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What are the three branches of the trigeminal nerve and what are their functions?
1. Maxillary branch - carries sensory information , 2. The ophthalmic branch- carries sensory information and 3. The mandibular branch -carries sensory information as well as having a motor function of controlling eight muscles.
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What is the sixth cranial nerve and its function?
Abducent nerve - controls the function of the lateral rectus muscle of the eye.
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What is the seventh cranial nerve and its function?
Facial nerve - The sensory fibres of the facial nerve innervate the taste buds of the anterior two thirds of the tongue, whilst the motor fibres innervate all the muscles of facial expression.
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What is the eighth cranial nerve and its function?
Vestibulocochlear nerve - the cochlear branch conveys impulses concerned with hearing whilst the vestibular branch coneys info about equilibrium, balance and the position and movements of the head.
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What is the ninth cranial nerve and its function?
Glossopharyngeal nerve - The sensory nerve fibres give sensation to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue whilst the motor fibres innervate the stylopharyngeus which helps to elevate the pharynx during swallowing.
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What is the tenth cranial nerve and its function?
The vagus nerve- motor fibres innervate the skeletal muscle of the soft palate, pharynx and larynx and autonomic muscle fibres innervate the cardiovascuar, digestive and respiratory systems. The sensory nerves carry impulses from all the muscles.
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What is the eleventh cranial nerve and its function?
The accessory nerve - Fibres of the bulbar root join the vagus nerve to form the recurrent laryngeal nerve whilst the spinal root innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles which are involved in head movement.
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What is the twelth cranial nerve and its function?
Hypoglossal nerve - innervates all intrinsic and three extrinsic muscles of the tongue which is important for the manipulation of food, speaking and swallowing.
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Card 2

Front

Describe the passage of the nerve impulse from the first cranial nerve

Back

From the olfactory mucosa the nerve travels up through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to reach the surface of the brain. The nerve enters the olfacotry bulb and synapses there to be taken over the brain via the olfactory tract.

Card 3

Front

What is the second cranial nerve and its function?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the third cranial nerve and its function?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the fourth cranial nerve and its function?

Back

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