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  • Created by: ambh0yle
  • Created on: 11-02-14 19:32
What do animal cells have?
nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes.
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What is the function of the nucleus?
controls activities of the cell
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what is the function of cytoplasm?
where most chemical reactions take place.
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What is the function of the cell membrane?
controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell.
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what is the function of the mitochondria?
where most energy is released during respiration.
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what is the function of ribosomes?
this is where protein synthesis occurs.
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What do plant cells contain that animal cells don't?
Chloroplasts, cell wall and a permanent vacuole.
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What is the function of chloroplasts?
They absorb light energy to make food.
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What is the permanent vacuole full of?
Cell sap
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What is the function of the cell wall?
It is made of cellulose, which strengthens the cell.
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What does a bacterial cell consist of?
cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall; the genes are not in a distinct nucleus; some of the genes are located in circular structures called plasmids.
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What type of cell is a yeast cell?
Single-celled organism
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what do yeast cells consist of?
a nucleus, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
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What may cells be specialised to do?
Carry out a particular function.
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What is diffusion?
when particles of a substance move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.
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If there is a greater difference in concentration, what does this mean?
there is a faster rate of diffusion.
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How do dissolved substances move into and out of cells?
By diffusion
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Diffusion helps what to carry through cell membranes?
Oxygen required for respiration.
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What is osmosis?
the diffusion of water from a dilute to a more concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane that allows the passage of water molecules
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Differences in the concentration of solutions inside and outside a cell cause water to move into or out of the cell by what?
Osmosis
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What does the term isotonic mean?
This is when a solute concentration inside a membrane is equal to the solute concentration outside that membrane.
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What does the term hypotonic mean?
This is when the concentration of electrolyte (a compound which dissolves in water) is below that in cells.
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What does the term hypertonic mean?
A solution that has higher osmotic pressure (or has more solutes) than another solution to which it is compared.
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What does the term turgor mean?
This is a 'happy' cell- it is healthy and full of swollen cytoplasm.
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What does the term plasmolysed mean?
This is an 'unhappy' call- it is short of water, with shrunken cytoplasm.
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What is active transport?
when substances are absorbed against a concentration gradient. It requires the use of energy from respiration.
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What does active transport enable?
plants to absorb ions from very dilute solutions.
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A single celled organism has what?
a relatively large surface area to volume ratio.
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In a singled celled organism, where do all the necessary exchanges occur?
In its surface membrane
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What is the effectiveness of an exchange surface increased by?
Having a large surface area that is thin, to provide a short diffusion path. Having an efficient blood supply. (animals in gaseous exchange) being ventilated.
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Card 2

Front

What is the function of the nucleus?

Back

controls activities of the cell

Card 3

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what is the function of cytoplasm?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the function of the cell membrane?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is the function of the mitochondria?

Back

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