11.4 Sexual reproduction Definitions

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Spermatogenesis
Production of sperm in testes
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Oogenesis
Production of egg cells in ovaries
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Gametogenesis
Diploid/haploid cells dividing to form mature gametes
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Gametes
"Sex cells." In humans these are sperm and eggs.
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Mitosis
Chromosomes in the cell nucleus separate into 2 identical sets of chromosomes with their own nuclei. A form of cell division.
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Meiosis
A form of cell division for gamete production. Creates 4 haploid daughter cells.
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Haploid/n
A cell with half the regular number of chromosomes
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Diploid/2n
A cell with paired chromosomes, ie. the full number
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What are the testes made of?
Seminiferous tubules
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What are between the seminiferous tubules?
Interstitial cells
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What are the seminiferous tubules made of?
Germinal epithelium
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What are primary spermatocyes?
Diploid cells
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What are secondary spermatocytes?
A haploid cell created by the meiosis of a primary spermatocyte
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What is a spermatid?
An immature sperm
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What is an oocyte?
An immature ovum
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What is a primary follicle?
A central oocyte that is surrounded by a single layer of follicle cells.
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What is a zygote?
A cell formed by the fertilization event of two gametes
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What is fertilization?
A process wherein a zygote is formed
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What is polyspermy?
The fertilization of an egg by multiple sperm
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What is an acrosome?
A membrane-bound sac of enzymes at the head of a sperm
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What is the zona pellucida?
The outer coat of an egg made of glycoproteins
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What are cortical granules?
Vesicles near the egg membrane containing enzymes
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What is implantation?
At 7 weeks the blastocyst implants itself into the endometrium and penetrates the uterus lining.
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What is the myometrium?
The uterus's muscular outer wall
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Altricial species
Species that give birth to helpless and incompletely developed young that require care.
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Precocial mammals
Mammals have longer gestation periods and have larger children with open eyes, hair, and the ability to walk.
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Amniotic sac
The 'water of the womb'
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What is a secondary follicle?
A mature ovarian follicle
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What prevents polyspermy? (3)
The acrosome reaction, penetration of the egg membrane, and the cortical reaction
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Who uses external fertilization?
Aquatic animals who have behaviour to bring sperm into proximity with eggs
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What are the risks of external fertilization?
Predation, changes in environment
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Who uses internal fertilization?
Terrestrial animals and marine mammals who reinvaded aquatic habitats.
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What are the benefits of internal fertilization?
Prevents gametes from drying out, sperm and ova kept close, embryo protected in mother
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How is a blastocyst formed?
The fertilized ovum divides by mitosis so many times until it forms the blastocyst.
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Why does the blastocyst implant itself into the endometrium?
Because the zona pellucida breaks down after a week and the blastocyst needs an external food supply.
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What happens when the blastocyst implants itself into the endometrium?
It develops projections to penetrate the endometrium, which then allows an exchange of materials to occur w/ the mother's blood, ex. food and oxygen
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Why is hCG released by the embryo?
To encourage the corpeus luteum to keep producing estrogen and progesterone
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How is the endometrium maintained?
By production of progesterone and estrogen
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What is secreted by the placenta at the 9th week of pregnancy? (2)
Estrogen and progesterone
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What does the placenta's secretions mean? (2)
That the corpus luteum isn't needed any more and that there is a danger of miscarriage if the switch over fails.
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What does progesterone inhibit during pregnancy? (2)
Secretion of oxytocin by the pituitary gland, and contractions of the myometrium
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Production of egg cells in ovaries

Back

Oogenesis

Card 3

Front

Diploid/haploid cells dividing to form mature gametes

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

"Sex cells." In humans these are sperm and eggs.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Chromosomes in the cell nucleus separate into 2 identical sets of chromosomes with their own nuclei. A form of cell division.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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