11.3 The kidney and osmoregulation definitions

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Osmolarity
The solute concentration of a solution
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Osmoregulators
Animals that maintain a constant internal solute concentrations
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Which animals are osmoregulators?
Bony fish and all terrestrial animals
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Osmoconformers
Animals that maintain a constant internal solute concentration that are the same as concentrations of solutes in the environment
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Osmoregulation
A form of homeostasis that keeps concentrations of solutions in a certain range
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Hemolymph
The invertebrate equivalent of blood
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Malphigian tubules
Tubes that branch off the insect intestinal tract
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Medulla
Inner region of the kidney
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Cortex
Outer layer of kidney
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What does the ureter do?
Carry urine from the kidney
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Ultrastructure
Structure of something too small to see with your own eyes
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Glomerulus
Cluster of capillaries around a kidney tubule
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Glomerular filtrate
Fluid forced out of the glomerulus and that passes though all parts of the ultrafiltration system
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Ultrafiltration
A process where particles are separated by size
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What is the ultrafiltration system made of?
Fenestrations, basement membrane, and podocyres
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Nephron
The basic functional unit of the kidney
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What is the role of the nephron?
To osmoregulate useful substances and excrete the rest
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Convoluted tubule
The first part of the nephron
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What is the role of the convoluted tubule?
Selective reabsorption of sodium ions, glucose ions, and glucose
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Peritubular capillaries
Tiny capillaries around the nephrons
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Fenestrations
Gaps in the capillary walls
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What is the purpose of fenestrations?
To allow fluid to escape but not blood cells
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Basement membrane
A mesh of negatively charged glycoproteins that cover and support the capillary walls
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What is the purpose of the basement membrane?
Its glycoproteins allow everything to pass through except plasma proteins. It is the ultrafilter
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Podocytes
They wrap around the capillaries
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What is the purpose of the podocytes?
These form the inner wall of the Bowman's capsule
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Bowman's capsule
A sac at the beginning of a nephron that encloses the glomerulus
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Counter current system
Flow of fluid in opposite directions
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Counter current multiplier system
A mechanism that expends energy to create a concentration gradient
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Which limb of the loop of Henlé is impermeable to water?
The ascending limb
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Which limb of the loop of Henlé is impermeable to sodium ions?
The descending limb
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When is ADH used?
When the blood solute concentration is too high
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Which animals release nitrogenous waste as ammonia?
Fish, echinoderms, and coelenterates. Also marine mammals, due to their evolutionary history.
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Which animals release nitrogenous waste as ammonia, then urea?
Amphibians. As larva they released the waste as ammonia, and when they go through metamorphosis they expend energy to convert the ammonia to urea.
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Which animals release nitrogenous waste as uric acid?
Birds and insects
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What are the advantages of releasing nitrogenous waste as uric acid?
For birds it saves energy for flight. For developing organisms in eggs, their waste is better to release insoluble uric acid which crystallizes than another form that would create toxic concentrations in the cell.
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Dehydration
Less water enters the body than exits
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Overhydration
More water enters the body than exits
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What are the consequences of dehydration?
Darker urine, tiredness/lethargy (due to lower muscle function and higher tissue exposure to metabolic waste), increase in heart rate (low blood volume and pressure)
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What are the consequences of overhydration?
Cells swell (blood becomes hypertonic to cells and moves in via osmosis), headache, nerve function disruption
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What are the causes of kidney failure?
Due to diabetes or hypertension (from diabetes)
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What are the methods of treating kidney failure?
Hemodialysis/renal dialysis, and kidney transplant
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What are the pros of the methods of treating kidney failure?
Dialysis gives no chance of rejection. Transplant gives greater independence.
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What are the cons of the methods of treating kidney failure?
Dialysis means patients have to be hooked up for a long time, risk of infection. Transplant has risk of rejection.
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How does hemodialysis work?
Blood from vein in patient's arm flows into an artificial semi-permeable membrane in a dialysis machine. Waste products go through but blood cells and proteins are too big. The blood is then purified and returned to the body.
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Urinalysis
A process that looks for abnormalities in blood composition
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Detecting diabetes from urine
High glucose and protein
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Detecting kidney damage from urine
High protein
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Panel blood test
Analysis of urine using monoclonal technology to look for illegal/controlled drugs
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Microscopic examinations
Examination of abnormalities in urine
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What do 6-10 neutrophils present in urine mean?
A UTI
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What do RBC present in the urine mean?
Kidney stone/tumour in urinary tract
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Neutrophils
WBC with visible nucleus
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Why do insects have a malphigian tubule?
To get rid of uric acid
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What does the renal artery contain?
Oxygenated blood, glucose, toxins etc, excretory waste products, excess water and salt, no urine
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What does the renal vein contain, and why?
Deoxygenated blood, less glucose (some used in metabolism), toxins, excretory waste products, excess salt and water released into vein as urine (excretion). Desired products are actively reabsorbed.
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Why do animals in dryer climates have longer loops of Henlé?
They developed longer loops of Henlé to retain more water.
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How does the filtrate enter the distal convoluted tubule?
It is hypotonic to normal body fluids as so many solutes have passed out of the filtrate in the loop of Henlé
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Is the collecting duct permeable to water?
It usually has low-permeability to water.
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Card 2

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Osmoregulators

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Animals that maintain a constant internal solute concentrations

Card 3

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Which animals are osmoregulators?

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Card 4

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Osmoconformers

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Card 5

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Osmoregulation

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