112DT Muscles PP 1

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  • Created by: Ellen
  • Created on: 28-01-14 22:28
How much of the body is made up of muscle?
40-50%
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What is the main purpose of muscle?
Contraction + Relaxation = Movement
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What are the other 5 purposes of muscles?
Chemical energy into mechanical energy; stabilise the body; generate heat; regulate organ volume; propel fluid and food
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What is the scientific name for a muscle cell?
Myocyte
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What are the three muscle types?
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac.
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Name 3 skeletal muscle characteristics:
Attached to bone; Striated; Upto 40cm long; Mulitinucliated; Nuclei in periphery; Cylindrical and Parallel fibres
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What system controls the skeletal muscles?
Somatic Nervous System
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Are skeletal muscles moved voluntary or involuntary?
Voluntary
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Are cardiac muscles moved voluntary or involuntary?
Involuntary
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Where would you find intercalated discs?
Cardiac muscles
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Name 3 cardiac muscle characteristics:
One central nucleus; Fibres are branched; Striated; Attached end to end by transverse thickening.
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What are the lines of proteins that hold together during vigorous exercise?
Desmosomes
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What is the oute for action potentials int he heart?
Gap Junctions
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What system is the cardiac muscle controlled by?
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
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Name 3 characteristics of smooth muscle?
Walls of hollow structures; Non striated; Constricts the lumen
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Which system regulates smooth muscle?
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
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What are the 4 properties of muscle?
Electrical excitability; Contractility; Elasticity; Extensibility
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What name is given to a group of muscles cells?
Fascicle
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What is another name for a muscle cell?
Muscle fibres
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What are fascicles wrapped in?
Perimysium
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What is the muscle wrapped in?
Epimysium
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What is the cell membrane called for muscle fibres
Sarcolemma
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What is the cytosol called for muscle cells and covers the myofibril?
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR)
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What 2 things that the sarcoplasm contains and what are they for?
Glycogen - synthesis of ATP; Myoglobin - bind O2 to muscle and release O2 to Mitochondria
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Where would you find the T-tubules?
Sarcolemma
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What protein is the thick filament made from?
Myosin
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What 3 proteins are the thin filaments made from?
Actin; Tropomyosin; Troponin
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What is the name of the section from T-tubule to T-tubule
Sarcomere
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What part of the cell is responsible for contraction?
Myofibrils
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Where is Ca2+ stored?
Terminal cisterns
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What word is given to 1 T-tubule and 2 terminal cisterns?
Triad
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What is the name of the dense protein that separates the sarcomeres?
Z-Discs
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What are the 3 types of proteins needed for a contraction?
Contractile; Regulatory; Structural
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Name the contractile proteins and their functions:
Myosin + Actin - to generate force
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Name the regulator proteins and their functions:
Tropomyosin + Troponin - turn contractions on or off
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Which filaments/protein has a myosin binding site?
Thin/Actin
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Which filament/protein is known as the major motor protein and uses ATP?
Thick/Myosin
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Which filament/protein covers the myosin binding sites when relaxed?
Thin/Tropomyosin
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Which filament/protein changes shape when Ca2+ binds to it?
Thin/Troponin
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What neurotransmitter is released at the neuromuscular junction?
Acetylcholine (ACh)
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How is the acetylcholine ACh broken down?
Acetycholinesterase
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What are the 3 types of skeletal muscle fibres?
Slow Oxidative (SO); Fast Glycolytic (FG); Fast Oxidative-Glycolytice
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What are the 6 properties of Slow Oxidative (SO) fibres?
Small least powerful; Dark red increase myoglobin; Mitrochondria = ATP aerobic respiration; Respiration takes longer; Ideal for endurance; Fatigue resistant
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What are the 6 properties of Fast Glycolytic (FG) fibres?
Largest increase myofibrils; More powerful; White decrease myoglobin; Glycogen = ATP = glycolosis; Hydrolyse ATP fast; Fatigue quickly = Anaerobic respiration; Ideal for strength training
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the main purpose of muscle?

Back

Contraction + Relaxation = Movement

Card 3

Front

What are the other 5 purposes of muscles?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the scientific name for a muscle cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the three muscle types?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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