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  • Created by: vdagnan
  • Created on: 24-03-14 20:53
Which 5 organs are purely endocrine organs?
Pituitary gland, Pineal gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland, Adrenal (2 glands)
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Which 4 organs contain endocrine cells?
Pancreas, Thymus, Gonads, Hypothalamus
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Where is the thyroid gland located?
In the kneck
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T1, T2, T3, T4 AND Thyroglobulin make up the Thyroid hormones, Thyroxine is best known as which T number?
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What are the 2 main functions of Thyroid hormones
1. Increase overall metabollic rate 2. Stimulate growth and development in children
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When there are low levels of Thyroid hormones in the blood the hypothalmus stimulates which hormone?
Thyrotropin releasing hormone
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Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulates which gland to release which hormone?
Pituitary gland (anterior) releases Thyroid stimulating hormone
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Which hormones are then released by the follicular cells that make up te Thyroid gland?
T3 & T4
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Know explain the thyroid hormone negtive feedback system in full
Low blood levels of T3 & T4 (or a low metabolic rate) stimulate release of TRH, which stimulates the release of TSH from the anterior poituitary gland. TSH in the blood stimulates the throid follicular cells which releases T3 & T4 into the blood
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What is the function on the follicular cells?
They secrete and synthesis of the the thyroid hormones t3 & t4 for storage
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What is the storage in the thyroid cells referred as?
Colloid lakes
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Parafollicular cells also make up the thyroid cells, what do they secrete?
Calcitonin (which reduces calcium in the extracellular fluid, promote bone absorption of calcium and increasing calcium secretion in the kidney)
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How many parathyroid glands do we have and what do they secrete?
We have 4 and they secrete Parathyroid Hormone (opposite function of calcitonin. They increases Calcium in the extracellular fluid, breaks down bone, and increases reabsoption mof calcium by the kidney, and increase absorption in intestinal tract)
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Which nutrient is absorbed by the gut that is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis and what is it converted to?
Iodine, converted to Iodide
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which cells that make up the parathyroid glands secrete the PTH
Chief cells
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What two parts of the body do PTh and calcitonin target
Bone and kidneys
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Which hormone is released when calcium is low in the blood
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Does calcitonin increase or decrease blood levels of calcium, explain how?
It decreases blood levels by increasing the uptake of calcium in bones and increasing calcium secretion by the kidney
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What are the three structres of the adrenal glands?
Capsule, Cortex and medulla
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The cortex of the adrenal glands is made up of how many zones?
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Just insode the capsule is the glomerulosa zone which secretes which main mineralocorticoid?
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What do mineralocorticoids do?
Regulate minerals in the body
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What is the main function of Aldosterone?
Blood pressure regulation
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What is the main Glucocorticoid hormone secreted by the fasciculata zone in the adrenal cortex?
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what is the main function of cortisol
Regulates metabolism (the stress hormone)
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name three ways in which it regulates metabolism?
Increases protein breakdwon, gluconeogenesis (stimulates liver to convert amino acids or lactic acid into glucose), Lipolysis (stimulates breakdown of triglycerides and fatty acids in adipose tissue into blood)
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Name another function of the adrenals apart from metabolism?
Resistance to stress (increases glucose production, increases blood pressure), anti inflammatory (inhibits white blood cells), Depression of immune system
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What Androgens are secreted in the Zona Reticularis?
DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) which is weak and is insignificant in males. It may acct fro female sex drive.
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The adrenal medulla is made up of which cells?
Chromaffin cells
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The Chromaffin cells secrete which two flight or fight hormones?
Adrenaline and Noradrenaline
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The Alpha Cells of the pancreas secrete Glucagon, what do the beta cells secrete?
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The pancreas cell is made up of ?
Pancreatic islets (1-2 million) Which is made of four types of endocrine cell (Alpha, beta, delta and F cells)
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What is the affect of the Alpha and Beta cells secretion?
Alpha increase blood glucoselevels and beta decrease blood glucose level
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what is the role of the delta cells?
They inhibit insulin and glucagon (by the production of somatostatin)
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Name a function of the F cells?
Inhibt Somatostation, inhibits gallbladder contraction, and secretion of digestive enzymes
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Name two hormones secreted by the ovaries?
Oestrogen, progesterone, relaxin and inhibin
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Name a hormones secreted by the testes?
Testerone and inhibin
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Where is the pineal gland?
In the brain
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What is the name for the neroglia and secretory cells?
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What do they secrete?
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What is the function of melatonin?
Contributes towards setting the biological clock (circadian rythym)
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When would you expect to find higher levels of melatonin?
At night, it is 10 x higher levels than in day
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The sympathetic ganglion is not stimulated due to lack of light, will this raise or lower metatonin levels?
Raise, lack of light. In light norepinephrine is produced which inhibits melatonin, so we won;t feel sleepy, but with no light, a lack of norepinephrine stimulates melatonin secretion which induces sleep.
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The hormones produced in the Thymus promote the proliferation and maturation of which cells?
T Cells
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What is the function of leukotrines?
Influence white blood cells and inflammation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Which 4 organs contain endocrine cells?


Pancreas, Thymus, Gonads, Hypothalamus

Card 3


Where is the thyroid gland located?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


T1, T2, T3, T4 AND Thyroglobulin make up the Thyroid hormones, Thyroxine is best known as which T number?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are the 2 main functions of Thyroid hormones


Preview of the front of card 5
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