6.3.2

How does a carbon-13 or proton NMR spectrum tell you the number of carbon environments in the molecule?
From the number of peaks.
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How does a carbon-13 or proton NMR spectrum tell you the different types of carbon environment present?
From the chemical shift.
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How does a proton NMR spectrum tell you the relative numbers of each type of proton present?
From the integration trace or ratio numbers of relative peak areas.
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How does a proton NMR spectrum tell you the number of non-equivalent protons adjacent to a given proton?
From the spin-spin splitting pattern; the n+1 rule.
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What is used as the standard reference peak for chemical shifts?
Tetramethylsilane, TMS.
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Why are deuterated solvents, e.g. CDCl 3, used?
The 1H atoms have been replaced by 2H atoms (deuterium, D); deuterium produces no NMR peak, so is commonly used as a solvent; CDCl3 will produce a peak but will be automatically filtered out.
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What is proton exchange using D2O?
A method of identifying -OH and -NH protons; deuterium exchanges and replaces the OH and NH protons in the sample with deuterium atoms, so the peak disappears.
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What can elemental analysis be used to identify?
Use of percentage composition by mass to determine the empirical formula.
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What can mass spectra be used to identify?
Use of the molecular ion peak to determine the molecular mass and fragment ions to determine parts of the molecule.
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What can IR spectra be used to identify?
Use of absorption peaks to identify bonds present and functional groups.
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What can NMR spectra be used to identify?
To determine the number and types of carbon and hydrogen atoms from the chemical shifts of peaks and the order of atoms within molecules from splitting patterns.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How does a carbon-13 or proton NMR spectrum tell you the different types of carbon environment present?

Back

From the chemical shift.

Card 3

Front

How does a proton NMR spectrum tell you the relative numbers of each type of proton present?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How does a proton NMR spectrum tell you the number of non-equivalent protons adjacent to a given proton?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is used as the standard reference peak for chemical shifts?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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