1. Hydrometeorological Process

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Area of a drainage basin:
Catchment area
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Drainage basin boundary:
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Mississipi Drainage Basin
Drains almost half of the coterminous US
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System of the basin hydrological cycle?
A system of components. Comprising an input, a set of outputs, and intervening storages and transfers
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Rainfall, snowfall, hail, rime (frost), dew
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3 main outputs:
1. Evapotranspiration: evaporation and transpiration. 2. Channel runoff: streamflow at basin outlet 3. Leakage: loss via substrate to adjacent basins
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Storage, and how?
1. Vegetation 2. Surface water 3. Soil Moisture 4. Groundwater 5. Channel water
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Trapping of precipitation by vegetation
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Water flows down stems
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Through fall
Water drip from/through leaves
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Downward water movement into soil
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Downward water movement through soil
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Channel precipitation
Precipitation directly into the stream
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Overland flow
Water flow over the ground surface
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Capillary rise
Upward movement of water in soil
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Replenishment of groundwater
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Reference for basin hydrological cycle:
Strahler and Strahler, on whole process.
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Most common transfers in basin hydrological cycle:
Transpiration, Evaporation, Stemflow, Through flow, Interception, Channel Precipitation, Base Flow, Percolation
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Water Balance
Quantifies input, output, and storage components of a basin
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Water Balance formula (simplified)
Deposits = withdrawals + change in capital
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Water Balance equation:
P = (E+ R) + delta S
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What do the letters stand for in Water Balance Equation
(p - precipitation) ( E - evapotranspiration) (R - Runoff) (delta S - change in surface storage)
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Equation for positive change in water balance storage:
(E + R) > P
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Equation for negative change in water balance storage:
P > (E + R)
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What may affect water balance:
Climate Change and Human interference
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How does human interference affect the water balance?
1. Urbanisation 2. Afforestation/deforestation 3. Water Storage 4. Soil drains 5. Vegetation burning 6. Tillage
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Card 2


Drainage basin boundary:



Card 3


Mississipi Drainage Basin


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Card 4


System of the basin hydrological cycle?


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