Witte helping Russian Industrialisation

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How Witte Obtained the Capital for Industrial Development

  • Increased indirect taxes - heavy taxation
  • Mounted drive to swell grain export
  • Reduced imports by increasing tariffs (Protected Tariffs)
  • Tariff Act 1891: duties increased so Russian Iron, industrial machinery and raw cotton were heavily protected
  • Import duties reached 33%

Agricultural Developments 1881-1904

  • Criticised for no policies
  • Increased extraction of grain from peasants by over…


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