· Enrages (group, Jacques Roux = spokesperson).
· Economic situation continued to deteriorate summer 1793. Mid-August, assignat below 1/3 its face value and drought had reduced supplies into Paris by ¾.
· Roux shocked when he saw people starving. His followers were wage-earners, casual labourers and the poor and unemployed. His aim was for the Convention to deal immediately with starvation and poverty, when it did nothing, he denounced it.
· His programme was Economic Terror – he demanded execution of hoarders. Robespierre wanted to destroy him.
· Roux was influential figure in journee of 5th September 1793. Roux was arrested during this journee.
· 4th September – crowd gathered before Hotel de Ville to demand bread and higher wages. Then marched on the Convention forcing it to accept a series of radical measures.
· Convention authorised formation of Parisian ‘armee revolutionnaire’ consisting mainly of sans-culottes. Purpose:
o Ensure food supplies of Paris and large provincial cities.
o Round up deserters, hoarders, refractory priests, religious ‘fanatics’, political suspects and royalist rebels.
o Establish revolutionary ‘justice’ in areas of south and west.
· Parisian and provincial armies engaged in dechristianisation.
· Parisian army successful in supplying Paris with bread until 1794, but numbers were small and they met constant hostility from rural population.
· Great joy in countryside when they were disbanded. CPS didn’t like them as they were anarchic and outside the control of the authorities and they created opposition to the Revolution.
· July 1793- Convention passed law the imposed death penalty for hoarding food and other supplies.
· 29th September – law of General Maximum passed to control prices- fixed price of bread and many essential good services at 1/3 above price of June 1790. Wages that determined prices also fixed at 50% above level of 1790.
· When peasant refused to sell grain at maximum price, government compelled to requisition supplies.
· Maximum divided common people against each other, sans-culottes clashed with peasants and conflict between town and country deepened.
· Co-operation of wealthy peasants necessary for government. To meet concerns of farmers and other producers, government revised prices upwards in February.
· Short term- government’s measures successful- towns and armies fed, assignat worth 22% of its face value in August rose to 48% in December 1793.