What were the problems with surgery in the 18th Century?
There were three main problems that made surgery so dangerous in the 18th Century. Bleeding, pain and infection.
Some substances, like opium and sometimes laughing gas, had been used to calm patients with severe injuries but there were no anaesthetics. This meant patiens were not spared the excruciating pain of surgery - which sometimes sent patients into shock.
Surgery had to be completed quickly…