When did the civil war become inevitable?
The beginning of the Long P:
- Opened on the 3rd November 1640.
- Puritan MPs saw this as their last opportunity to avoid Counter reformation/absolutism.
- John Pym warned MPs of a Catholic Conspiracy & accused Charles' gov.t of implementing absolutism in Ireland.
- Feared influence of Strafford and Laud - both were impeached and imprisoned.
- Root and Branch petition, removal of Bishops from the Anglican Church and HoL.
- Charles was forced to agree to the Triennial Act, agreeing to a new P every 3 years.
The Trial of Strafford
- P claimed he wished to use the Irish army to establish a Roman Catholic monarchy.
- 22nd March 1641, trial began. Strafford accused of trying to establish 'arbitrary gov.t'.
- Pym resorted to a Bill of Attainder. All that was needed now was Charles' signature to prove that Strafford was a traitor.
The Army Plot
- Group of officers had been planning a Coup d'etat which had the support of Charles.
- Officers had planned to march from York to London to free Strafford from the ToL & then dissolve P.
- 3rd April 1641 Charles had sent a hundred officers to seize the Tower, but it was well defended.
- Lords agreed to pass the Bill of Attainder and Charles was in no position to refuse to sign Strafford's death warrant.
The Irish Rebellion
- Appointed lead Puritans (Oliver St. John & Lord Saye & Sele) to gov.t.
- More difficult to claim that Charles was surrounded by 'evil advisors'.
- Winter 1641, England was plunged into crisis when the Catholic Irish rebelled against English & Scottish Protestant Settlers in Ireland.
- 4,000 Protestants were massacred & 8,000 died of exposure after being forced to leave their homes mid winter.
- The rebels falsely claimed they were acting in Charles' name, strengthening the idea of a Catholic conspiracy.
- An army was needed, but P didn't trust the King to command it.
- Henrietta Mariad advised him to employ…