War of the roses 1399-1509

  • Created by: Han11
  • Created on: 19-06-19 15:35

Reasons Bolingbroke’s usurpation in 1399 = 

·     Poll tax unpopular, 1381 peasants revolt. Shaken Great chain of being. Stabbed rebels in back promised make improvements began executing them. 

·     Unsuccessful wars in France. Blamed on king’s councillors. 

·     Marriage Anne of Bohemia, unpopular costly. 

·     Over generosity favourite nobles, William De La Pole + Robert De Vere. 

·     Henry Bolingbroke Duke of Hereford, Thomas of Woodstock Duke of Gloucester, Richard Fitzalan Earl of Arundel, Thomas Beauchamp Earl of Warwick, Thomas Mowbray Earl of Nottingham, Lords Appellant went against Richard. 

·     Black death caused class tensions, shortage labour. 

·     Accused being pro-French. 

·     Wonderful parliament 1386, demanded De La Pole removed. Richard refused, parliament refused grant taxation. Richard forced to agree. Battle of Radcot Bridge De Vere / De la Pole fled. 

·     Merciless parliament 1388, Richard’s favourites tried treason. 

·     Anne of Bohemia died no heir married Isabella of France, 23-year truce. 

·     1397 arrested Gloucester, possibly murdered Calais, Warwick imprisoned, Arundel executed. 

·     Quarrel between Bolingbroke + Mowbray. Bolingbroke exiled 10 years said obtain any inheritance. Mowbray exiled for life. 

·     John of Gaunt died, Henry disinherited. 

·     Richard Ireland 2 weeks after Henry invaded army 1399. 

Henry IV’s problems and solutions 1399 - 1406 = 

·     Epiphany uprising 1400. 

·     Owain Glyndwr, Welsh rebellion. Guerrilla tactics attacked Ruthin overwhelmed by Lancastrian forces. 

·     Henry hotspur Percy rebellion, Earls of Northumberland, financial disagreements with Henry, rebels defeated 1403 Battle of Shrewsbury. 

·     Relations France / Scotland. Increased piracy English Channel. Scottish refused recognise Henry king after usurpation. 

·     Scrope’s rebellion, Archbishop of York, over finances rebellion stopped, executed. 

·     Married Joan of Brittany. 

·     Richards death 1400.

·     Ill health ceased to rule alone 1410 after series strokes incapacitated him. 

·     Long parliament 1406, march to December, House of Commons unwilling subsidise the king. 

·     Henry died 1413 son Henry becomes Henry V. 

Henry V + conquest of France 1413-21:  


Preparations for war 1413-15 = 

·     Conciliatory attitude towards the Welsh ensure did not attack while he was in France. 

·     Reinstated Percy family as Earls of Northumberland ensured protection from Scottish. Held James I as prisoner. 

·     10-year truce with Brittany. 

·     1415 Southampton Plot, Edward Mortimer told Henry rebellion stopped. 

Lollards = 

·     John Wycliffe critical corruption within Catholic Church, believed in translating the Bible into English. Not persecuted, died 1384. Suggested bible not pope was source of authority. 

·     John Oldcastle, loyal commander to Henry supported lollardy. Rebellion 1414. Rebellion quickly destroyed. Arrested + tried for heresy. Found guilty, rebels executed Henry spared Oldcastle imprisoned in tower. Oldcastle escaped to Welsh border. Oldcastle eventually captured + hung for treason. 

·     Statute of Lollards passed, gave more help to the church in combatting Lollardy. 

Campaign 1415 =

·     Halfleur, strategic importance in Normandy…


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