Violence and Brutality

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Millions of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs were terrified that after independence they would wake up on the wrong side of the border, living in a country hostile to their religion. The border was not defined until after independence made this uncertainty worse and made it impossible for the local authorities to plan for the chaos which resulted.

  • In total, around 1 million people were murdered (Muslims suffering the most) and estimates of those who were forces to leave thier homes vary betwen 10-17 million
  • Robert Maybe (British businessman travelling the Pubjab in 1947) recalled that he was asked for help from desperate refugees, but all he could say was "your politicians asked for swaraj and this is swaraj"
  • BBC reporter Wynford Vaughan Thomas (also in the…


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