UNIT 2 - BIOLOGICAL APPROACH

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  • Created by: Saadia
  • Created on: 02-04-13 18:13

Define the biological approach showing understanding that it is about the influence and impact of genes and the nervous system on individual differences.

  • HOW WE THINK, FEEL AND BEHAVE IN TERMS OF INTERNAL PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN HUMAN BEHAVIOUR.
  • THESE ARE THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND GENETCS.

Define and use psychological terminology appropriately and 

accurately including the terms:

i central nervous system (CNS) - THE BRAIN + SPINAL CORD, WHICH ORGANISE COMMUNICATION WITHIN THE BODY.

ii synapse - A SMALL GAP BETWEEN NEURONES

iii receptor - SPECIAL LOACTIONS ON THE SURFACE OF A MEMBRANE TO WHICH NEUROTRANSMITTERS ATTACH AND CAUSE ACTION POTENTIAL

iv neurone - A NERVE CELL WHICH SEND ELECTRICAL IMPULSES ALONG THEIR LENGTH

v neurotransmitter - A CHEMICAL RELEASED AT THE END OF A NEURONE TO PASS A MESSAGE TO A NEURONE OR MUSCLE GLAND

vi genes - UNITS OF INFORMATION THAT ARE INHERITED FROM OUR PARENTS, WHICH INFLUENCE CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS.

vii hormones - CHEMICALS RELEASED FROM GLANDS WHICH CIRCULATE IN THE BLOODSTREAM AND AFFECT TARGET ORGANS

viii brain lateralisation. - THE IDEA THAT THERE ARE SYSTEMATIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RIGHT AND LEFTS OF THE BRAIN.

2a Describe and evaluate twin and adoption studies as research methods.

TWIN STUDES -

INVOLVE 2 TYPES OF TWINS (MZ - 100% SAME GENES, DZ - 50% GENES SHARED, THEY'RE FROM DIFFERENT EGGS) CHARACTERISTICS SUCH AS INTELLIGENCE AND PERSONALITY. PSYCHOLOGISTS ARE ABLE TO COMPARE TWINS/CHILREN WITH PARENT ON A MEASURABLE VARIABLE. THIS WILL BE BEHAVIOUR/CHARACTERISTICS.

+ NO OTHER WAY TO STUDY GENETIC INFLUENCES AS CLEARLY, MZ TWINS HAVE 100% DNA IN COMMON.

+ ADOPTION STUDIES - CONTROL FOR ENVIRONMENT AS CHILDREN DON'T SHARE THE SAME ENVIRONMENT AS BIOLOGICAL PARENT, THEREFORE ANY SIMILARITIES WITH PARENT ARE BIOLOGICAL

+ STUDIES CAN BE LONGITUDINAL SO DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS CAN BE STUDIED.

- MZ TWINS MAY BE TREATED MORE ALIKE THAN DZ TWINS AS THEY LOOK MORE ALIKE, SO ENVIRONMENT MAY NOT BE CONTROLLED.


b Describe PET and MRI scanning techniques.

PET - POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY

  • INVASIVE TECHNIQUE (HARMLESS SUBSTANCES INTRODUCED INTO THE BLOODSTREAM WITH A RADIACTIVE TRACER).
  • SCANNER DETECTS THE MOVEMENT OF BLOOD WITHIN THE BRAIN VIA A 3-D MOVING PICTURE.
  • MOVING PICTURES CAN SHOW TUMOURS OR AREAS OF INJURY WITHIN THE BRAIN.
  • PET IS A TYPE OF FUNCTIONAL SCAN THAT SHOWS WHAT PARTS ARE THE MOST ACTIVE AT DIFFERENT TIMES.
  • PET HELPS IDENTIFY BRAIN DAMAGE

MRI - MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

  • NON INVASIVE TECHNIQUE.
  • PATIENT IS PLACED INSIDE A LARGE MAGNET THAT INDUCES THE HYDROGEN ATOMS IN THE BODY TO MOVE.
  • PRODUCES AND EM SIGNAL WHICH COMPUTERS GENERATE AN IMAGE OF BRAIN TISSUE.
  • BRAIN CAN BE VIEWED CROSS-SECTIONALLY. IMAGES SHOW DIFFERENT DENSITIES IN BRAIN.
  • THIS IS ONE WAY PSYCHOLOGISTS STUDY BEHAVIOUR AND BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON IT.
  • A WAY OF SEEING A PICTURE OF THE BRAIN INSIDE THE SKULL WITHOUT SURGERY.

 

Identify, describe and apply the following terms: 

i alternative, experimental and null hypothesis

ii one or two tailed with regard to tests

iii levels of significance (eg p≤ 0.01, 0.05)

iv

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