Scalars and Vectors
A scalar has no direction, unlike vectors which have direction and magnitude. These would include mass, temparature etc. However Vectors would be used in things like displacemnet, force, velocity, acellartion and momentum.
Always draw vectors tip to tail, after reading a question on vectors, map them out as they are a sequence so it becomes easy to work out the resultant force.
Horizontal and Vertical Components
You have to think of all resultant forces having two components that enduce their direction. A horizontal direction and a vertical direction. These two directions can be worked out using trigenometry if you are only given speed (magnitude) and angle (direction).
To work out a horizontal component:
V = Velocity h = Horizontal v = Vertical
Vh = V x Cosθ
Vv = V x Sinθ
Remember you can treat components differently.
Motion With Constant Accelaration
Here you can simply rearrange and mess around with the SUVAT equations.
s = displacement (not distance)
u = starting velocity
v = end velocity
a = acceleration
t = time
You will get given the equations in the exam.
Velocity - Time Graphs