Unit 2 Psychology- Learning

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  • Created by: court.ney
  • Created on: 06-06-16 18:28

A reletively permanent change in behaviour due to experience.

Classical Conditioning:

A procedure during which someone learns to associate a reflex response with a new stimulus. 

Pavlov studied this. Each time a dog was fed, a bell would ring. and the amount of saliva measured. After a few times, the bell was rung with any food given and the same amount of saliva was produced. 

Unconditioned stimulus- the stimulus that produces a reflex response.
Unconditioned response- the reflex response to a unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned stimulus- a new stimulus, presented with the UCS.
Conditioned response- the response that is learnt, occurs with CS.

Extinction is when a CR dies out and spontaneous recovery is when it appears again.

CC schedules- Before, during, after.

Watson and Rayner

A- To see if the emotional response of fear could be conditioned in a human

M- 11-month-old Albert liked rats and had no fears of white objects. In the trial, the rat was shown and a metal bar was hit behind his head. This was repeated.

R- After seven times, the rat was presented again and Albert screamed and cried even though the var was not hit. He also screamed at a white coat and Santa mask.

C- Fear responses can be learnt by young children by classical conditioning.

EV- Not very ethical thing to do to a child. Only used one child so can't really generalise.

PA- advertising agencies see we can get an association between an advert and a product we are more likely to buy it. They can use famous people to promote what they are selling.

Operant Conditioning:

Learning due to the consequences of behaviour, through positive or negative reinforcement.

Thorndike used a puzzle box and cat to show operant conditioning. Thorndike discovered Law of Effect. Behaviors that are followed by rewards are usually repeated, those that are punished are not.

Punishment- a stimulus that weakens behaviour and we try to avoid it. 
Reinforcement- a consequence of behaviour that encourages or strengthens a behaviour.
Positive reinforcement- a reward that increases the likelihood that a behaviour


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