A reletively permanent change in behaviour due to experience.
A procedure during which someone learns to associate a reflex response with a new stimulus.
Pavlov studied this. Each time a dog was fed, a bell would ring. and the amount of saliva measured. After a few times, the bell was rung with any food given and the same amount of saliva was produced.
Unconditioned stimulus- the stimulus that produces a reflex response.
Unconditioned response- the reflex response to a unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned stimulus- a new stimulus, presented with the UCS.
Conditioned response- the response that is learnt, occurs with CS.
Extinction is when a CR dies out and spontaneous recovery is when it appears again.
CC schedules- Before, during, after.
Watson and Rayner
A- To see if the emotional response of fear could be conditioned in a human
M- 11-month-old Albert liked rats and had no fears of white objects. In the trial, the rat was shown and a metal bar was hit behind his head. This was repeated.
R- After seven times, the rat was presented again and Albert screamed and cried even though the var was not hit. He also screamed at a white coat and Santa mask.
C- Fear responses can be learnt by young children by classical conditioning.
EV- Not very ethical thing to do to a child. Only used one child so can't really generalise.
PA- advertising agencies see we can get an association between an advert and a product we are more likely to buy it. They can use famous people to promote what they are selling.
Learning due to the consequences of behaviour, through positive or negative reinforcement.
Thorndike used a puzzle box and cat to show operant conditioning. Thorndike discovered Law of Effect. Behaviors that are followed by rewards are usually repeated, those that are punished are not.
Punishment- a stimulus that weakens behaviour and we try to avoid it.
Reinforcement- a consequence of behaviour that encourages or strengthens a behaviour.
Positive reinforcement- a reward that increases the likelihood that a behaviour…