Unit 1 Cell Structure and transport Biology

  • Created by: Penfred
  • Created on: 05-05-21 10:21

Unit 1 Cells Structure and transport

1.1 Microscope:

Magnification x real size = image size

1mm = 1000 micrometers (μm)

1μm = 1000 nanometers (nm)

Light microscope can magnify up to x2000

Electron microscope can magnify up to x2000000

1.2 Animal and plant cells

You know this

1.3 Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells

Animal and plant cells are Eukaryotic

Bacteria are prokaryotes and are single cell living organisms

They are 0.2-2.0μm in length

Differences: genetic material is not enclosed in a nucleus and is instead a dna loop, plasmids are present, can contain slime capsule and flagella

Some bacteria are useful and some are harmful

1.4 specialisation in animal cells

As a organism develops, cells differentiate to form different types of cells

Nerve cell

  • Dentries to make connections to other nerve cells

  • An axon that carries nerve impulses from one place to another, can be very long

  • The synapses ( nerve ending ) are adapted to pass the impulses to another cell using special transmitter chemicals. 

Muscle cell

  • Special proteins that can contract and relax

  • Contain many mitochondria

  • Can store glycogen, which can be used in cellular respiration by the mitochondria

Sperm cell

  • A long tail to help with swimming

  • Lots of mitochondria so the tail can work

  • The acrosome stores digestive enzymes to help break down the outer layers of the egg

  • A large nucleus contains genetic


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