Turning to crime
- 411 white, working class boys.
- By the age of 20, of those with a convicted father, 48% had a criminal record themselves.
- Of those with a non-convicted father, 19% had a criminal record themselves
- On average, criminal careers lasted from 14-35
Waikstrom and Tafel
- 2,000 14-15 year olds
Yochelson and Samenow