Turkey, Iraq, Iran and the West 1908-2011 / CHAPTER 11



  • Overview. 
    -In 1914, Ottoman Turkey sided with Germany in the WW1 but was defeated by 1918
    - Allied forces occupied Istanbul and other parts of Turkey
    - Sultan appointed Kemal, the Turkish military general (aka Ataturk) to disband Ottoman military forces as required by the Allies.
    -HOWEVER, Ataturk called on his countrymen to rid the land of its foreign occupiers. The Allies allowed a large Greek military force to land at Izmir and occupy the surrounding area, they went even further, increasing patriotic ideas among Turks to respond to Ataturk's call to fight.
    -Ataturk and his supporters also rejected the Treaty of Sevres which in 1920, deprived Turkey of Eastern Thrace and the land around Izmir.
  • The war with the Greeks 1920-2
    -In 1921 - Ataturk's forces drove out the Greeks forces from Izmir and Eastern Thrace. Ataturk's leadership played the most important role. This victory forced the Allies to overturn the Treaty of Sevres. 
    - in 1923 - Treaty of Lausanne was signed in which they recognised Turkish sovereignty over Istanbul and Eastern Thrace as well as all of Anatolia(Turkey).
    - By gaining so much power, Armenians who lived in Turkey were forced to flee to what became the Armenian republic in the Soviet Union or other countries.
    - Kurds who also lived in Turkey were disappointed because in the Treaty of Sevres they had the right for their independent state but this was cancelled in the new treaty of Lausanne.
  • Ataturk and the Republic of Turkey
    -Ataturk wanted to turn Turkey to the westernised nation.
    -He made the Turkish National Assembly to abolish the position of the sultan and in October 1923 - Turkey has proclaimed a republic
    - Ataturk introduced a new legal code, based on European laws.
    - He changed Arabic script with Latin-based
    - Turkey was also transformed into a completely secular state. Islamic schools and law courts were abolished and in 1928 - the article in the constitution which stated that Islam is the religion of Turks was removed.
    -Christian Gregorian calendar was adopted and Sunday was made the day of rest (not Friday as in Islam)
    - 1935 - European practice of using surnames was introduced and this is when Kemal took the name of Ataturk
    - Although most Turks remained religious, there was no organised resistance to his policies of secularisation and they liked Ataturk
  • Authoritarian state
    -Constitution declared that Turkey is a democracy with the sovereignty of people exercised by an elected parliament. HOWEVER, Ataturk was so powerful that he overrode the constitution when he needed to.
    - 1924 - Ataturk organised his supporters into Republic People's Party which was the ruling party for 27 years.
    -Ataturk style was highly authoritarian. Yet he planted the seeds of liberal government. After he died in 1938, there was increasing opposition and his successor Inonu allowed a multi-party system. The Democratic Party emerged and won elections in 1950. Inonu allowed a peaceful transfer of power to the…


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