Tsar Alexander II's Educational and Censorship Reforms.
- 1863- Universities were able to govern themseles so could appoint their own staff (given more autonomy)
- 1864- Responsibility for schooling went to the Zemstva (local government)
- Primary and Secondary schooling was extended.
- School were declared 'open to all'.
- In 1856 there were 8,000 primary schools in Russia. Thi inreased to over 23,000 in 1880.
- The number of University students also increased from 3,600 to 10,000 by 1870.
- There was a more liberal curriculum: study sciences, philosophy and European…