Transport systems

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  • Created by: pladoo
  • Created on: 22-10-19 16:09

Respiration

Aerobic respiration

Glucose + Oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water

Takes place in the mitochondria

Anaerobic respiration

To respire Anaerobically your muscle cells must not be getting enough oxygen, in which cells convert glucose in the muscle cell to:

Glucose -> lactic acid + 2ATP

Lactic acid reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water.

This breaks it down to get it out of your body.

Oxygen + lactic acid -> carbon dioxide + water

Oxygen debt

When you do certain type of strenuous exercise you build up an oxygen debt. The more you anaerobically respire the more the debt.

Practical investigating muscle fatigue

1.      Make sure your arm is held upright

2.      Start the stopwatch and squeeze the ball or the clothes as fast as you can and count the number of squeezes for twenty seconds

3.      Record the number of squeezes and repeat x5

4.      Avoid taking breaks

5.      Then do the other hand.

Food tests

Starch

Amylase

Glucose

Iodine

Benedict

Black/blue

Green/orange

Lipids (fats)

Lipase

Fatty acids

Glycerol

Filter paper

ethanol

Transparent

Cloudy white

Protein

Protease

Pepsin

Amino acids

Biuret reagent

Purple

 

 

 

 

 

Practical investigating food tests.

Test for starch

1.      Add 2cm3 of the starch solution to a test tube

2.      Add 2 drops of iodine solution

3.      Record the colour change (dark blue/ black).

Test for glucose

1.      Mix 2cm3 of the starch solution to a test tubes with 2cm3 of the benedict reagent

2.      Heat the mixture in a water bath at a temperature of 60°C

3.      Record he colour change (should be Brick red).

Test for protein

1.      Mix 2cm3 of the protein solution with 2cm3 biuret reagent

2.      Record the colour change (purple)

In the experiment we use Shreddies and potato.

Using all three of these test we determined that Shreddies contain glucose and starch while potatoes only contain starch.

Fermentation – trapping yeast with a high glucose solution in a container without oxygen so ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced.

Anaerobic respiration in plants

Plants

Glucose -> ethanol + carbon dioxide + ATP

Animals

Glucose -> lactic acid + ATP

Humans use Fermentation (Anaerobic respiration from plants) to produce alcoholic beverages.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diffusion, osmosis and active transport.

Diffusion

Osmosis

Active Transport

Used in the gut

Used in the gut

Used in the gut

No energy needed

No energy needed

Energy needed

Fast process

fast process

Slow process

Molecules move down the concentration gradient

Water move down the concentration gradient

Molecules move against the concentration gradient

Occurs in the alveoli

Occurs in all cells

Occurs in all cells

Occurs in all cells

Occurs in plant roots

Occurs in plant roots

 

 

Needs mitochondria

 

Diffusion

Diffusion – the net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. This is caused by the random movement of

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