Transition Metals

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  • Created by: Kelly
  • Created on: 27-03-12 12:35

Transition Metals

Transition metals are found in the 'd' block of the Periodic Table and all have a partially filled 'd' energy level, either as an atom or an ion. All transition metals have general properties of metals.

Properties of Transition Metals

* High melting point

* High boiling point

* Conductors of heat and electricity

* Relatively high density

* Have catalytic activity

* Form complexes

* Form coloured compounds

* Have variable oxidation states

The first 4 are general properties of metals, however the last 4 are specific to transition metals.

Electronic Configuration

Remember 4s fills before 3d, but it is convention to write them in numerical order.

When forming ions, electrons are lost from 4s first.

s shells have 2 electrons, p shells have 6, d shells have 10

The order we write them in is;

1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d and so on.

2 Exceptions:

Chromium and copper fill slightly differently to provide a more stable configuration.

24Cr: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s1

29Cu: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s1

Complex Ions

 A complex ion is formed when transition metals or their ions form co-ordinate bonds with ligands.

 Ligands are species that can donate one or more pairs of electrons, and can be an ion or a molecule.

Ligands act…


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