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  • Carol Smart (1980):
  • Post Modernist, Transgressive criminology.
  • Transgression takes us beyond the boundaries of conventional criminology. Self - imposed curfews, treatment of women as victims, domestic violence, abuse and ****.
  • Criticizes Adler on the grounds that she wrongly sees juvenile delinquency as reflective of future adult crime.
  • Hilary Allen (1987):
  • Argues that mental health explanation for female criminality results in lighter punishments by the courts.
  • Eileen Leonard (1982):
  • Bad crimes committed by women are treated more harshly than most men.
  • Such women seem to be treated quite harshly by the agents of social control because they do not conform to expected norms of femininity.
  • Freda Adler (1975):
  • Believes that women liberation will increase womens participation in criminal activity.
  • Evidence based on growth of juvenile crime by women.
  • Stephen


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