Transformation of Surgery - All Key Dates

1500s – Ambroise Paré develops metal clips to place on arteries to prevent blood loss. Also developed ligatures to tie around blood vessels, but only worked if tied properly

1799 – Humphrey Davy accidently discovers that inhaling nitrous oxide (laughing gas) makes a person less aware of pain

1815 – The RoyalCollege of Surgeons is set up

1820s – Syringes, tubes and pumps invented for replacing blood and making transfusions possible

1840s – Alcohol, drugs or mesmerism (hypnosis) are used as anaesthetics

1840s – Main types of surgery: amputation of limbs, caesarean sections, removal of bladder stones

1844-1845 – Horace Wells, an American dentist, uses nitrous oxide when extracting teeth

1846 – William Morton, an American dentist, found ether to be a more long-lasting anaesthetic than chloroform.

1847 – James Simpson discovers and uses chloroform in an operation

1847 – Ether is used for the first time in England

1848 – John Snow invents the chloroform inhaler

1848 – Hannah Greener



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