The effect of media content on audiences
Gerbner et al. (1986) - representations of violence in the media result in forms of crime and antisocial behaviour in real life.
Dworkin (1990) and Morgan (1980) - consumptioon of *********** which is nowadays very easy to access is encouraging sexual violence and negative attitudes towards women. [FEMINISTS]
Orback (1991) and Wolf (1990) - representations of women in magazines has produced a generation of size zero women who suffer from eating disorders. [FENINISTS]
Cohen (1980) and Jock Young (1981) - mass media has created moral panics which has led to the increase in social anxiety. This has therefore led to changes in social policy and law. [INTERACTIONALISTS]
The power of advertising in the media, especially towards the cild audience has created this 'pester power' which puts pressure on parents to 'buy' their child's love. [MARXISTS]
Media representations of masculinity and femininity, Gunter (2008) - men promoting cars and women promoting washing up liquid, has led to gender role socialisation. [FEMINISTS]
Norris (1999) - media coverage of political issues can influence voting behaviour. [MARXISTS]
Marcuse (1964) - media transmits a 'mass culture' which makes the population more vunerable to ruling-class propaganda. [MARXISITS]
Two important aspects of this debate:
1. We need to distinguish between effects on behaviour and effects and attitude - effects approach.
2. Assumtions that some audiences are passive and some are actively interacting with the media.
The hypodermic model of violence
Hypodermic syringe model = the view that the media are very powerful and the audience very weak. The media can 'inject' messages into the audience, who accept them uncritically.
This model belives that there is a direct correlation between the violence shown in films, on TV, e.t.c. and the violence and crime found in real life. Gerbner et al. (1986)
Imitation or copycat violence
Bandura et al. (1963) - showing groups of children violent media scences.…