Focal concerns = term used to describe key values.
Miller (1962) - working-class males have six focal concerns that are likely to lead to deliquency:
1. Smartness - both look good and have a sharp repartee.
2. Trouble - "I don't go looking for trouble but..."
3. Excitement - thrill seekers.
4. Toughness - being physically strong.
5. Automony - not to be pushed around.
6. Fate - little chance to overcome the wider fate that awaits…