World War One - ,der erste Weltkrieg' 1914-1918. Initially triggered by the murder of Franz Ferdinand (Austria). German army carried out a modified version of the Schlieffen Plan.
Treaty of Versailles 28th June 1919 - ,Versailler Vertrag' -
- Signed exactly 5 years after the assassination of Franz Ferdinand
- This treaty required Germany to accept responsibility for the war (along with Austria and Hungary)
- The War Guilt clauses told them to disarm themselves, make concessions on their territory (mostly West Prussia), colonies in Africa and the Pacific, and pay for post-war reparations (that amounted to 132 billion Marks - an enormous sum of money and unreasonable, only just repaid in 2010)
- pretty much humiliated Germany, caused an outrage and gave Hitler his Right-Wing way in. Signing this treaty and giving over was often blamed on Jews due to rumour and scandal, and lead them to be attacked in horrible ways.
The Weimar Republic - Die Weimarer Republik - 1919-1933
Split into three phases:
1) 1920-1923 The descent into Chaos
2) 1924-1929 The 'Golden Years' up until the Wall Street Crash in 1929
3) 1929-1933 - The Rise of Fascism, The Collapse of Democracy
The Golden Era - 1924-1929 -
Berlin becomes the cultural capital. Art, music, theatre, dance, opera, musicals -- all become important. Cabaret, literature, architecture, film, painting, philosophy, fashion -- also significant at the time. Women's emancipation, Decadence
Rise of Fascism:
Hilter exploited the Dolchstosslegende, economic unrest and anti-Semitism in order to gain votes and become a powerful leader
In 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor (by democratic voting - the people were won over by his right-wing propaganda)
Sets up the Nazi dictatorship and so the lead to WW2 begins.
1933-1945 The Third Reich - Nazi Control
1933 Reichstag Fire
1 September 1939 – 2 September 1945 - World War II
12th April 1945 - Roosevelt dies
30th April 1945 - Hitler commited suicide in Berlin in his Fuehrerbunker
7th May 1945 - Germans surrender unconditionally
8th May - Midnight - Stunde Null - Zero Hour - the capitulation of the Nazi government, Victory in Europe/End of World War II
5th June 1945 - Allies assume 'supreme power' over Germany. Authorities could only act with the approval of allied forces.
10th June 1945 - The first party to appear was the KPD (Kommunistische Partei Deutschland in Soviet areas)
17th July - 2nd August 1945 - Potsdam Conference - Cecilienhof, Germany. The Soviet Union/USSR, the USA and GB meet up. Stalin, Churchill & Attlee and Truman. They decide how to establish post-war order after Nazi Germany has been defeated. Peace treaties and counter-effects of war must be discussed.
-Allierter Kontrollrat - Germany Allied Control Council authoritative body
-Interallied Berlin by international occupation as the ,Reichshauptstadt'.
-Payment for WW2 reparations
-denazification, demilitarisation (including the release of POW-troops and dismantling the Arms factories) and democratised