Timeline - key statistics/events for D4 Russia

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·         1917    -     26000 Mosques

·         1921    -     Ban against factions

-          Gosplan set up (State Planning Commission, co-ordinated, set targets for collectivisation and FYPs, competed with Vesenkha Supreme Economy Council for influence)

-          (20s) League of Militant Godless set up

·         1922    -      April, Germany and Russia Rapallo Treaty (agreed to renounce territory        and financial claims from Brest-Litovsk)

·         1923    -     Zinoviev, Kamenev and Stalin troika alliance (excluding Trotsky as RA)

·         1924    -     Lenin dies

-          Economic growth still enabling recovery from civil war

-          315 Gulags (labour camps) established

-          May, Lenin’s Testament published

-          Trotsky publishes Lessons of October attacking Zinoviev and Kamenev for lack of involvement

·         1925    -    Practical NEP problems emerged

-          Trotsky ‘Permanent Revolution’, Stalin ‘Socialism in One Country’ fde

-          Left (Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev) distrusted NEP and called for its end, so to rapidly industrialise

-          Right (Bukharin) wanted it to last for a generation as it increased stability and was evidence of a workers’ and peasants’ alliance

-          Stalin lets Zinoviev and Kamenev attack Trotsky, without interfering, in order to appear neutral

-          January, Trotsky condemned by Central Committee and so loses powerbase (Red Army)

-          Zinoviev and Kamenev then attack Stalin (allied with Bukharin) but easily defeated by Stalin’s supporters

·         1926    -     Zinoviev and Kamenev form United Opposition with Trotsky

-          Kamenev and Zinoviev lose positions in Leningrad and Moscow, they and Trotsky are expelled from the party

·         1927    -      118558 schools

·         1928    -      Poorer peasants encouraged to denounce richer kulaks

-          Forcible procurement of grain despite very poor harvests

-          State collect 10.8mn tonnes grain

-          1st Five Year Plan, 1928 to 1933 (lack of consumer goods attention, Gigantomania e.g. Magnitogorsk obscure town 1928 to 1/4mn population 1932 mining industry, unachievable targets, top down organisation unstable if any departments failed e.g Commissar for Heavy Industry, shortage of skilled workers so quantity over quality)

-          ‘Great Turn’ encouraged foreign communists to stop siding with USSR socialists

·         1929    -      Trotsky expelled from the USSR

-          Bukharin tries to defend the NEP at Party Congress, but Stalin moves his supporters to vote against him, and Bukharin is removed from Politburo and Comintern

-          5% of peasants lived and worked on state-farms

-          February, more than 25% of animals has been killed by peasants, as well as farm machinery and grain itself

-          Meat, bread and basic foodstuffs rationed

-          December, ‘liquidation of the kulaks as a class’

·         1930   -     January, Stalin demanded that 25% grain producing land collectivised (in        Kolkhoz – common land run by electorate, 50 to 100 households, up to 1 acre           private land, no wages but ‘working shares’, equipment etc. pooled)

-          January, Stalin’s 50


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