MAYER, 1990, P284 - problem solving (PS) is "cognitive processing directed at transfering a given situation into a goal situation when no obvious method of solution is available"
PS is effortful and mostly under our control
PS exists when someone lacks the relevant knowledge to produce an immediate solution
THORNDIKE 1989- hungry cats in closed cages
discovered learning by trial and error
originally thrashed about then discovered cage could open when a pole was hit inside the cage.
KHOLER 1925- the 'ah-ha' moment
Sultan (an ape) in a…