Thinking

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PROBLEM SOLVING

MAYER, 1990, P284 - problem solving (PS) is "cognitive processing directed at transfering a given situation into a goal situation when no obvious method of solution is available"

PS is effortful and mostly under our control

PS exists when someone lacks the relevant knowledge to produce an immediate solution

GESTALT APPROACH:

THORNDIKE 1989- hungry cats in closed cages 

discovered learning by trial and error 

originally thrashed about then discovered cage could open when a pole was hit inside the cage.

INSIGHT:

KHOLER 1925- the 'ah-ha' moment 

Sultan (an ape) in a…

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