Ontology is a theory’s explanation of what makes up the essence of social reality or what exists.
Epistemology is a theory’s explanation of how it is possible to gain knowledge of social reality or how we should carry out our research.
Structural theories are macro (LARGE scale), top-down and deterministic theories that see society as a real thing existing over and above us, shaping our ideas and behaviour (ontology). Their epistemology is positivist.
Social Action Theories are micro-level, bottom-up approaches that focus on the actions and interactions of individuals. Society is shaped by our choices,…