- Created by: paulhaswell
- Created on: 06-01-19 13:21
How and why did the system of land ownership change during 1949-57?
Attacks on landlordism and the redistribution of land
- 1950 Agarian Reform Law - taking land from landlords and redistributing to peasants
- Would restrain over-zealous activists seen in civil war
- PLA played crucial role - silencing hostile people, helping local officials
- Calculated amount of land owned to be taxed
- Meetings where people were labelled - landlords publicly humiliated, accused of exploitation
- Lots of anti-landlord paranoia
- Put power in peasant's hands - could blame them, showed peasant-led revolution
Moves towards agricultural co-operation
- Didn't want peasants to own land either - moved towards collectivisation
- Mao wanted to take it slow - also experimented over years
- 1951 - MATs - 10 families pooled equipment, animals, labour, still private ownership. Voluntary
- 1952 - APCs - 40/50 families, pooled land aswell, some personal land, profits shared. Voluntary
The change from voluntary to enforced collectivisation
- Mao frustrated at slow pace
- Some APCs rushed, in debt, so Mao called for slowdown in spring 1953
- 1954 - peasants begin capitalist methods. Mao angry, renewed pressure to join APCs
- Richer peasants killed livestock in protest. Requisitioning to cities causes protest. Mao called for slowdown
- July 1955 - Mao chooses all-out collectivisation. Doesn't want peasants revolting
- Almost everyone joins APCs
- HPCs - 200/300 households, rewarded work with work points
- Ideological success - state owned means of production of food
- Showed Mao's power in party
- Increased local party power
- However, meant peasants were now servants, not allies
- Made Mao over-confident, ignored economic sense
- Productivity very low - insufficient food to feed industrial population
- People lacked motivation, no capitalist incentives
What was the impact of the people's communes after 1958?
- Mao's answer to catching Britain was to make collectives larger and responsible for industrial production, education, welfare provision and local defence
Reasons for launching the communes
- Thought more resources pooled together woud lead to higher food yields and leave peasants more time for industrial work
- Mao impressed with APCs (on tour). Able to get through politburo with evidence
- Mao wanted to continue revolution
How the communes were organised
- May 1958 - Great Leap Forward announced - 'walking on two legs'
- Grain and steel production given equal priority
- Mao keen to decentralise so power with enthusiastic local officials, not technical experts
- First People's Commune in Henan - 9,000 households
- Not possible to move out of commune without internal passport
- Communal canteens and dormitories. Couples only slept together when allowed
- Management teams - directed labour, tractor stations, backyard furnaces, mills etc.
- Provided education, healthcare, police, army, childcare, canteens, 'happiness homes'
- Managers deployed free workers in construction projects
- Mao wanted 'utopian socialism'
- 10 guarantees - meals, clothes, housing, school, medical, burial, haircuts, entertainement, heating, money for weddings.
The abolition of private farming
- Communes were compulsory - all private property surrended
- No work points, because state provided everything anyway. Lack of incentives
- Strict management - 6 hours sleep every 2 days. Villagers tried to do as little as possible
- Large military presence…