The First Revolt

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The First Conflict

  • Before departing to Spain in 1559, Philip appointed his half-sister Margaret of Parma as regent.
  • Philip continued his father's policies of making close relatives regents.
  • Margaret's experience of government was limited.
  • Philip feared he would soon become a puppet to the aristocracy.
  • And so, he set up a 'consulta' or inner council.
  • The council had 3 loyal servants of the crown.
  • Their principal task was to advise the regent and ensure she kept to Philip's instructions

Granvelle

  • Head of the council was Antoine Perenot de Granvelle.
  • Granvelle as a native of Franche Comté.
  • Granvelle was a shrewd and experienced politician.
  • Granvelle's most important qualification was his slavish devotion to his royal master.
  • He was appointed Cardinal in 1561.

Grievances of the Grandees

  • Between 1555 and 1559, the Grandees had been largely excluded from influence in the court.
  • With Philip and his counsellors one, the Grandees hoped to be readmitted to the centre of political power.
  • A anti-Granvelle campaign led by Counts Egmont and Hornes and William of Orange (the stadholder of Holland, Zealand and Utrecht) developed.
  • After Granvelle's appointment as Cardinal, the 3 grandees and their supporters donned jester's caps in mockery of Granvelle's cap.
  • They made plain in their speeches and letters that they wanted Granvelle dismissed.
  • The Granvelle's were convinced they'd win the campaign, as Philip was at war with the Turks and couldn't pay attention to the events in the Netherlands.
  • They had powerful allies in Spanish court in their campaign against Granvelle.
  • Egmont, Hornes and Orange were virtually immune to reprisals if their plotting miscarried.
  • William of Orange hoped his bride's German relatives would support him with an army.

The Bishoprics Scheme

  • In 1561, Philip ordered a thorough reform of the ecclesiastical organisation of the Netherlands.
  • He proposed the creation of 14 new bishoprics in the Netherlands based on a plan derived from his father.
  • The foreign sees under whose jusrisdiction the ecclesiastical affairs of the country were currently placed were entirely displaced.
  • The new prelates required an income so they would take over the revenues of the appointed abbots of nearby monastic houses.
  • He stipulated that the new bishops should be educated in theology and equipped with inquisitors to check up on the religious orthodoxy of their flocks.
  • Philip's scheme threatened nearly all the influential forces in the Netherlands.
  • The new abbot-bishops would form a pro-Spanish lobby as the abbots traditionally sat in the provincial parliaments.
  • The new scheme promised to close down the spiritul avenue of employment for the nobles younger sons as theological training was beneath them. This reduced the nobles influence.
  • The appointment of inquisitors were seen as the preliminary of a new wave of religious persecution, meaning more arrests and burnings, a prospect repellant to many.
  • Granvelle played little part in devising the bishoprics plan, however, he became the focus of discontent as the scheme envisaged him promoted primate of the Netherlands.
  • The provincial parliament of Brabant, instigated by the Grandees, pressed for Granvelle's dismissal and refused to

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