League of Nations 1920-1945
- It was part of Woodrow Wilsons 14 points
- Main members:
- France 1919 - 1945
- Britain 1919 - 1945
- Japan 1919 - 1933
- Italy 1919 - 1937
- Main aims of the League:
- Discourage aggression (Keep peace by collective security)
- Encourage co-operation (Particuarly in business and trade)
- Improve living/working conditions for people around the world
- Encourage disarmament
-The Strengths of the League were:
It had the goodwill of governments and ordinary people towards it.
Most of the major countries had joined the League.
Defeated countries were later allowed to join the League.
It provided a forum to end disputes peacefully.
- The Weaknesses of the League were:
The USA did not join it.
The Soviet Union (Russia) did not join until 1934.
It had very little power and no permanent army.
It failed to encourage disarmament.
International suspicions and rivalries between countries continued.
Countries left the League when they disagreed with its decisions.
Economic sanctions especially without US support proved very ineffective.
It had to uphold the Treaty of Versailles, which was increasingly viewed as unfair.
It failed to stop Japan (Manchuria), Italy (Abyssinia) or Germany (Hitler’s breaking of the Treaty of Versailles).
- Types of Sanctions:
- Moral sanction: decide which country was the 'aggressor', condemn them for their action, and tell them to stop. Aggressor could carry on, as it is easily ignored.
- Economic sanction: (financial) members of the League would refuse trading with the aggressive country. Aggressor could still trade with non-members.
- Military sanction: the armed forces of member countries could be used against aggressor. The League didn't have an army, so they lacked power and intimidation, and the aggressor could carry on as there was no threat.
- Main Successes of the League:
Aaland Islands, 1921:
- Islands located between Sweden and Finland. Both nations wanted to claim it, appealed to League. They were prepared to fight. Decided the islands go to Finland, Sweden accepted it.
Upper Silesia, 1921:
- Industrial region on the border of Poland, rich iron and steel dinustry, it was a plebiscite and could vote on who has the territory. Contained by Poles and Germans. Germany recieved half of the industrial land, Poland recieved large portion of rural land.
Greek-Bulgarian Dispute, 1925: