*German civilians knew how badly things were going on the frontline. Defeats on the scale of Stalingrad 1944 & Kursk (1943) were too big to cover up
*Fighting on the retreat meant increased casualties.
DISLOCATION & DISRUPTION
*Retreat meant large numbers of evacuees and refugees. In 1945, 5 million civilians living in Eastern parts of Germany became refugees.
SHORTAGES & HARDSHIP
*Rationing became increasingly severe. Food & fuel became increasingly scarce.
*Shortages depressed morale. Mothers were worst affected - wondering how they would feed their families.
THE IMPACT OF BOMBING
*1943-45 German cities came under intense…