The Four Dumas
- The October Manifesto promised reform, this included having a 'State Duma' (established in February 1906)
- Method of Selection and Role of Dumas:
Over 500 delegates, elected every 5 years by men over 25 using indirect suffrage. Their role was to debate law and improve it. However 4 days before the first State Duma met, Nicholas issued the 'Fundamental Laws'. These laws cleverly upheld the October Promises, but 'confirmed the Tsar's supreme autocractic power'
The First Duma (May - June 1906) 'Duma of National Hopes'
- It was dominated by Kadets and radicals with large peasant representation.
- It demanded Radical constitional change.
- It passed a vote of 'no confidence' in the government.
- It was dissovled but reassembled in Finland where kadets issued the 106 'Vyborg Appeal' for a tax boycott. Leaders were arrested and disenfranchised. (Sent into political exile)
- This prompted Nicholas II to promote Stolypin to PM to manage 'The Duma Experiment'.
Second Duma (February - June 1907) 'Duma of National Anger'
- Stolypin engineered elections to increase the number of Octobrists.
- But the Bolsheviks and the Social Revolutionaries…