Water & Waste
- Water is needed for domestic consumption, manufacturing use, cooling purposes and sewage treatment/waste disposal.
- The demand for water continues to rise globally. Demand in England and Wales has risen to 40 billion litres per day in recent years.
- The key aspect is not only to ensure the supply meets demands but also that the supply is of adequate quality-ie, its purity and saftey.
- But in some areas, particularly in LEDCs where legislations are poor with less strict health/safety awareness, urban sewage and industrial waste can rapidly run off into water supply such as rivers and lakes.
Traffic & Transport
- Outdated and inadequate roads systens and the great rise in private car ownership increases congestion-a waste of time and fuel which brings pollution, noise and stress. Congestions can be managed by segregation (rerouting, establishing ring routes for through traffic and pedestrianisation), parking (pitching prices at the right level, rationing parking permits, limiting parking spaces) and improving public transport to make it an attractive alternative.
- Much of the energy used by various modes of transport comes from the burning of oil-based products. There are two major worries here-oil stocks…
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