Focus on the CJS in England and Wales. It is controlled by the Home Office and Ministry of Justice. The institutions and agenices which respond to offences committed. We currently use an adversarial system which breifly explained is a contest between the state and defendant. These are some of the main agencies involved in the CJS;
- The police
- The crown prosecution service (CPS)
- Criminal defence service
- Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service
- The National Offender Management Service
- Probation Trusts
- HM Prison Service (HMP)
- Youth Justice and Youth Offending Teams (YOT)
- Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC)
- Community Safety Partnerships (CSPs)
- Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority (CICA)
- Forensic Science Service (FSS)
- Parole Board
- Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC).
There have also been many attempts to try and explain the CJS and how it works, some models which try to explain it are;
- Crime Control (PACKER, 1969)
- Due Process (PACKER, 1969)
- Status Passage
- Power (WILSON, 2004)
- Rights (ASHWORTH & REDMAYNE, 2010)
- Freedom Model (SANDERS et al, 2010).
The models by PACKER are thought to be some of the most influential. The model of due process argues that the CJS always presumes innocence until evidence shows otherwise, this then creates a fair trial. It also states equality before the law and protection of defendents rights. Then there is the model of crime control which argues that guilt is always implied in the CJS and they are just trying to convict you as soon as possibe. There is an emphasis on crime fighting rather than prevention and the system itself is designed to aid police with little in place to defend the accused.
It has also been argued as to whether the system we currently have in place is a system…