- One of the oldest argument
- Attempting to prove the existence of God
- Answering questions such as, 'Why is there something rather than nothing?'
- 'Cosmological' - Greek word meaning order
- A posteriori - draws upon observationand empirical evidence
- Inductive - conclusion only probable
St Thomas Aquinas
- Proposed five ways proving the existence of God
- First three support cosmological argument
- First way - based on motion - object acquires a new form.
- Nothing can move itself - nothing can be mover and moved, yet things are in motion.
- Infinite chain of movers cannot have a first mover - cant go back forever without arriving at a first cause.
- God as the first cause
- Second way - based on the uncaused causer.
- World is series of events - All events are caused an nothing can cause itself
- Must be a first cause - all other causes depend on - known as the uncaused causer
- Arrive at infinate regression - no uncaused causer - impossible
- God as the cause of all that exists
- Third way - observation of necessity and contingency
- Contingent beings exist, and while they exist, there non-existence is always possible
- Contingent beings must depend on another being for their existence
- We exist - depend on another for our existence
- Being must be necessary - God
- Principle of sufficient reason
- World has always been in existence - need an explanation or sufficent reason for its existence
- Need to establish something rather than nothing
- Infinite regression is impossible - universe is a specific thing - needs to be explained
- Cannot go back forever
- Nothing within the universe to show why it exists - not self-expanatory.
- Argument - why do things come into existence
- God is the explanation of the universe
- 'Radio debate' was a broad cast - Russell discussed the…