The chemistry of carbon compounds.

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  • Carbon
  • Carbon is often linked to hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and halogen atoms.
  • Carbon atoms can join up in many ways, forminf chains, branched chains and rings.
  • The chains can be very long, such as the polymer polythene.
  • The bonding in organic compounds is covalent.
  • These structures are molecular.
  • Carbon can form 4 bonds.

The alkanes

  • The alkanes make up an important series of the hydrocarbons.
  • They are compounds in fuels such as natrual gas.
  • The simplest alkane is methane.
  • Monkeys(Methane)  eat(Ethane)  peanut(Propane)  butter ( Butane).
  • They do not dissolve in water or mix with it.
  • The alkanes with small molecules are gases.
  • Those with 4-17 are liquids.
  • Molecules with more than 17 carbon atoms are solid.
  • Liquid alkanes with longer molecules are sticky liquids.
  • All alkanes burn.
  • The hydrocarbons burn in air forming carbon dioxide and water.
  • Alkanes do not react with acids and alkalis.
  • The c-c and c-h bonds in the molecules are unreactive.

The Alcohols

  • Ethanol is the best known alcohol.
  • It's a very useful solvent.
  • It is a liquid which evaporates quickly.
  • It easily catches fire and burns with a clear flame.
  • The simplest alcohol is methanol can be made in 2 steps, using methane and steam.
  • The first 3 alcohols are Methanol, Ethanol and propanol.
  • An alcoholcan be seen as an alkane with one  of its hydrogen atoms replaced by an -oh group.
  • Methanol and Ethanol are liquids.
  • Alkanes with comparable relative molecular masses are gases.
  • Attractive forces between molecules of alcohols are stronger than they are in alkanes.
  • -OH group of atoms give the molecules this greater tendancy to cling together like water.
  • Boiling point of Ethanol : 78 degrees.
  • Ethanol molecules have a greater mass than water molecules.
  • Ethanol molecules have a less tendancy to stick together than water molecules.
  • The -OH in the molecules of methanol and ethanol freely mix with water, unlike alkanes.
  • Alcohols with longer hydrocarbon chains do not mix with water because the oiliness of the hydrocarbon…


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