The USA, The Soviet Union in the Arab-Israeli conflict/ Chapter9


1. The role of the USA in the Middle East

US interests in the Middle East before 1945
- They were not interesed.
- Britain was the major Western power in the region
-US government left the Middle East to Britain to safeguard Western interests there

US interest in the Middle East after 1945.
- They begin to support Zionism
- The support of Zionism had changed the government policy. EG - Truman asked the British to admit a large number of Jewish refugees into Palestine
- US believed that Israelis were more educated and esaier to work with.

Conflict in US policy in the Middle East

Main reasons why they needed to win Arab support: 1. to stop communism 2. oil
- They needed to stop the growth of Communism in the world.
- This means that USA needed the support of ARAB states at the same time as the support of Zionism
-Secondly, they wanted oil from the Arab countries. ARAMCO was established

The USA and the Suez Crisis 1956
-if the USA could keep Nasser on side, it would make it easier to control the region (this is because 1. Nasser was the heart of Arab Nationalism 2. he was Egyptian president -> the most populous Arab state.
-However! USA decided not to sell arms to Egypt when they asked (bc they did not want to upset Israelis as the weapons would be used against them and also they did not trust Nasser)
-As a result, Nasser bought it from Czechoslovakia. This showed Soviet support. He also recognised the Communist China when the US refused to do.
-When Nasser nationalised the Suez, American advised British not to use force. When they actually used it against what Americans said, they were punished and the aid to Britain was cancelled.

The Eisenhower Doctrine 1957
-It was the policy to oppose the spread of Communism in the Middle East
- The US would now economically and military aid the Middle East
- The US now tookthe responsibility for safeguarding Western interests in the region.
-Americans decided they Israelis should be withdrawn from the Sinai because they wanted to win the support of Arabs

US Policy afther the Six-day War
- US took "Israel-first" approach.
- Critics believe that this approach undermined US interest in the Middle East and drove more radical Arab regimes towards Communism
1.They were surprised that Jewish won and fought well. They fought justifiably so were supported and the support was widespread (media)
2. The rise of importance of American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC, Jewish lobby). They lobbied US congresmen to compaign for Israel support
3.Even with Soviet weaponry and military advisers, it was impossible to get Sinai and the Golan Heights back. The continuing Israeli occupation and domination would keep Arabs silent.

America's role in the October War 1973
-US still supported Israel in the war
-They also supplied Israelis with arms (to please domestic jews and to match the…


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