Paper 1 : Development of dictatorship : Germany , 1918-1945
The rise of Hitler and the Nazis
- Hitler and German Workers' Party
The German Worker Party (DAP)
- Right wing group founded by Anton Drexler in 1919.
- DAP members were angry about:
- Communists and Socialists who brought down the Kaiser
- Weimar politicians who agreed to the Treaty of Versailles
- The weakness of democracy as means of government.
- The Jews, who were blamed for weakening the economy (anti-Semitism)
- Hitler attended his first meeting in 1919 where there were only 23 members in the group.
- Hitlers found out that the entire party was only funded by only 7 marks.
- Hitler had been sent to DAP to spy for the army but later he realised he agreed with the DAP.
- September 1919, Hitler joined the party.
- By 1920, he was Anton's right-hand man.
- Changes to the party 1920-1922
The 25 point programme (1920)
- Main points:
- Scrap the Treaty of Versailles
- Expand Germany borders to give people it's Lebensraum (living space)
- Deprive Jews of rights and citizenship
- Destroying communism
- Making Germany great again
- DAP used force and violence to achieve all this.
- Hitler's public speaking was full of confidence and attracted a large number of people to meetings.
- Many people were dissatisfied with the Weimar Republic as of 1923.
- Hitler's excellent and convincing oratory skills attracted support from the army, police, small businesses.
- Membership grew rapidly to 1,100 people in 1920 from 23 in 1919.
The Growth of Hitler's role in DAP during the 1920s
- In 1920, Hitler changed DAP's name to NSDAP.
- Members of the NSDAP were known as Nazis.
- The party adopted the swastika as its emblem.
- Members began to use the arm salute as a Nazi characteristic.
- Members of the NSDAP increased to 3,000.
- Increased membership boosted party funds which enabled the party to buy the newspaper Beobatcher for 180,000 marks.
- This meant that the party was able to spread propaganda and Nazi views more efficiently.
- In 1921, Hitler pushed Anton Drexler aside and became the Party Leader.
- He gathered powerful party members
- Ernst Rohm (founder of SA)
- Goering (leader of SS, hero of Luftwaffe)
- Rudolf Hess (Hitler's deputy)
- Julius Streicher (founder of Nazi newspaper Der Sturmer)
- He was also close friends with General Ludendorff (leader of German army during WW1)
The Sturmabteilung (SA)
- Stormtroopers / Brownshirts
- Created in 1921.
- Recruited members were demobilised soldiers from 1919 Treaty of Versailles.
- The Nazi party's private army.
- Provided security at Nazi meetings.
- Acted as bodyguards for Nazi leaders
- Broke up meetings of opposition groups.
- Spread Nazi propaganda
- Intimidated oppositions
- Gave Nazis appearance of strength and order
- Causes, Events, Results of Munich Putsch (1923)
- Caused Germans to lead a miserable life.
- Germans had a shortage of goods due to the French occupation in the Ruhr.
- Germans reacted with passive resistance where workers went on strike.
- France brought in their own workers and took German resources which were mainly coal.
- The loss of agricultural land due to the treaty and lack…