The New Monarchy, 1492 - 1500 (Part 4)

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The New Monarchy, 1492 - 1500

The Role of the Cortes & Other groups in raising finance:

  • Servicio y Montazgo = ordinary tax owned on the movement of sheep by the Mesta = granted by Cortes
  • Alcabala = sales tax = 90 % of income from taxation
  • Tericias Reales (Royal third) = ecclesiastical tithes = granted by the Pope to the monarchs for their part in the war against Islam from 1494
  • The Cruzada = tax from war with Granada
  • Salinas = salt production
  • Customs duties (a tax of 19 per cent) = maritime trade
  • Extraordinary taxation = granted by Cortes e.g. servicios which raised money for war; payments made by Christians for indulgences; poll taxes from males over 16 who owned property
  • Income = Cruzada, servicio y montazgo, illegal taxes from Santa Hermandad, Tercias Real, Alcabala, Royal estates
  • Expenditure = personal, royal court, central administration, ambassadors, interest on juros, patronage, Dowries, War
  • J.H. Elliott = "income entirely dependent of Cortes control"

Taxation & Crown Debt:

  • crown found itself in debt
  • Paid off with Juros, kind of a state loan, offered to known + reliable supporters of the crown + repaid 10% interest
  • Alcabala was the crown's biggest source of revenue, first introduced in 1342 + initially collected by tax farmers, but later developed to the nobles
  • Cities could pay a lump sum, called encabezamento
  • These changes meant that the crown lost a regular flow on income, which in turn, meant it was less able to regulate its finances in a systematic matter
  • 1482 = crown became involved in wars both in Spanish penisula e.g. Granada 1492 + outside of Spain
  • Costs for war increased, ordinary income = insufficient
  • F + I are described as


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