The Musculoskeletal Strucutre



There are four classifications of bones:

  • Long bones- used for movement, shape, blood cell production and mineral storage. They're found in limbs. Examples include: femur and humerus.
  • Short bones- Found in the hands feet, used for shape and small movements. Examples include: carpals and tarsals.
  • Flat bones- found near vital organs. Mainly used for protection. Examples include: scapula, sternum and cranium
  • Irregular bones- used for small movements and protection. Examples include: vertebrae.

Tendons and Ligaments

Tendons- attach muscle to bone

Ligament- attach bone to bone


A joint is a point where two or more bones meet. These bones connect to let us move There are 3 types of joints:

  • Immovable joints= provide protection, found in the cranium
  • Slightly moveable joints= let us make small movements and provide some protection, found in the vertebrae.
  • Synovial joints= most common type of joint, let the body move freely.

Synovial joints

Synovial joints have the following features:

  • Cartilage- smooth cartilage is a protective layer that covers the end of each bone to stop them from rubbing together.
  • Joint Capsule- Very tough and fibrous. Lined with a synovial membrane which produces synovial fluid. Synovial fluids keep joints well lubricated  ( greased to prevent friction) to stop them wearing down and rubbing together.
  • Ligaments- provide strength and keep the bone in place, help…


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