The Multi-Store Model of Memory.


The Multi-Store Model of Memory:

Memory Variables:

  • Coding: The form in which information is stored.
  • Capacity: How much information can be stored.
  • Duration: How long the information can be stored for.

The Sensory Register:

  • Automatic response to sense organs.
  • First storage system in the Multi-Store model.
  • All information besides long-term passes through.
  • Unconscious
  • Specific - same sense as registered.
  • Iconic (Visual)
  • Echoic (acoustic)
  • Haptic (tactile) (touch)
  • Olfactory (smell)
  • Gustatory (taste)

Research for the Sensory Register:

  • Crowder (1993): Whilst researching coding, Crowder found that the Sensory Register had different durations for each information type which indicates different processing of all types.
  • Sperling (1960): Whilst researching Capacity (very large), Sperling practiced an experiment. He flashed a 3x4 grid of letters for 1-20 seconds and asked for the recall of one row. The recall of letters was high which he concluded suggests that all the information was originally there.
  • Triesman (1964): Whilst researching Duration (limited), Triesman presented identical information to both ears through headphones but with a slight delay. At two seconds or less participants could state that the messages were identical. After two seconds, this task become more difficult and errors were made. This suggests an echoic memory in SR of about two seconds.
  • Walsh and Thompson (1978): Whilst researching iconic memory, Walsh and Thompson flashed images of the letter 'O' twice with very brief interval between each presentation. The researchers recorded the interval from which participants could only report that they saw a continuous stimulus. It was found that people had an iconic sensory store for about half a second.

Short-Term Memory:

  • Stores information recieved from the sensory register
  • Contains information we are currently thinking about.
  • Coding in STM is usually visual, acoustic or semantic.
  • Capacity - most people can hold seven items (7 +/- two)
  • Duration - On average 20 seconds (18-30).
  • Chunking: method of increasing STM memory capacity by grouping information into larger units.

Short-Term Memory research:

  • Posner and Keele: Found participants were faster at recognising that 'A' followed by 'A' was the same letter than 'A' followed by 'a'. - Visual coding occured.
  • Baddeley (1968): Whilst researching coding in STM (Acoustic), Baddeley gave participants 2 lists of words


No comments have yet been made